Trel B

Monday, June 18, 2007

AgExt Course Outline for Sections A&B

AND COMMUNICATION (AgExt 51)Estrella E. Taco - Borja
Development Communication Department
Xavier University College of Agriculture
Sem 1, SY 07 - 08

Course Description:
This course is designed for all plain BS Agriculture students as well as those enrolled in the BS Food Technology and BS Agricultural Engineering programs.

Entry Competency:
Since this course is offered in the third year or fourth year curricula of the various departments, it is expected that the students who would enroll in this course have had basic knowledge on basic agriculture concepts and certain agriculture technology. Their basic knowledge would be used as points of entry and as specific examples as regards the application of various extension and communication methods and techniques.

General Objectives:
A. Cognitive
· Discuss the principles and practices of agricultural extension and communication and their relevance to sustainable agriculture and development
· Identify various extension and communication methods and approaches
B Affective
· Appreciate the nuances in handling and communicating with various audiences
· Show concern to issues related to agriculture and the development of the farming workforce/sector
· Demonstrate selected extension methods through classroom or field activities


Specific Objectives: At the end of the unit, the students are able
1. To contextualize discussions on agricultural extension through an analysis of local, national and agricultural situation;
2. To present basic development theories and approaches;
3. To explain basic concepts in agriculture and agricultural development;
4. To trace the development of agriculture over the years, with focus on the Philippines; and,
5. To identify basic agricultural laws
A Phil. Population and Agricultural Production
B Development Theories, Approaches
C Agriculture Modernization and Development
D Sustainable Agriculture and Development
E Agricultural Laws; DA EOs/Memos

Specific Objectives: At the end of the unit, the students are able
1. To trace the history of agricultural extension; and,
2. To explain the basic concepts of extension: definition, philosophy, goals, objectives and types of extension.
A Historical Antecedents of Agricultural Extension
a.1 Extension in Europe and in the USA
a.2 Extension in the Philippine Setting
B Extension Defined
b.1 Philosophy
1 educational process
2 democratic process
3 indigenous knowledge
4 continuous process
b.2 Goals and Objectives
1 intermediation/mediation
2 teach people
3 research & mobilization
4 local leadership identification
5 establishment of structure/institutions
b.3 Types of Extension
1 Informative extension
2 Emancipatory extension
3 Formative extension
4 Persuasive extension

Specific Objectives: At the end of the unit, the students are able
1. To identify the roles and functions of the extension worker;
2. To enumerate the principles and approaches of extension;
3. To identify the various extension teaching methods, techniques and approaches;
4. To appreciate the indispensable role of communication in extension;
5. To explain the process of diffusion and adoption, teaching adults;
6. To illustrate the cycle of a development program; and,
7. To discuss and reflect on the extension experiences of the country.
A Roles and Functions of Extension Worker
a1 Enabler
a2 Educator
a3 Mediator
a4 Farmer aid
a5 Facilitator
B Principles
b2 Communication and education
b3 Accountability to client
b4 Works with rural people
b5 Two-way process linkage
b6 Cooperates with other agencies
b7 Different target groups
b8 Developing rural leadership
C Changes and Challenges in Extension
c1 client-orientation
c2 electronic information
c3 participation
c4 unified extension service
c1 status of extension
c2 pre-service education
c3 extension policy
c4 extension after decentralization
c5 impact assessment
c6 globalization
c7 linkages
c8 techno transfer focus
c9 info techno in extension
c10 participation and pluralism
D Models of Technology Transfer
d1 top-down
d2 feedback technology transfer
d3 modified FTT
d4 farmer-back-to-farmer
d5 farmer first
d6 beyond the farmer first
E The Extension Delivery System
e1 research
e2 change
e3 client
F Extension Teaching Methods and Techniques
1. Categories:
f1 individual
-farm and home visits
-office calls
-informal contacts
-model farmer
-individual talk
-personal letter
f2 group
-farmers’ class/seminar
-role play
-farm demo
-tours/excursions/field trips
-popular theater
-group discussion
-group meeting
f3 mass
-print media (leaflets, brochures, newspaper, etc.)
-indigenous folk media
-modern info techno
2. Factors in the choice of a method
a. Learning objectives and subject matter
b. Philosophy of learning and learners
c. Competence of extension worker
d. Learning environment
E Approaches in Extension
e1 Mass: Farming System Development
e2 Commodity
e3 Area: Scheme
e4 Team:
1 Target Category
2 Functional Group
3 Farmers’ Organization
e5 Individual
1 Project
e6 Integrated
1 General
2 Technical Change
e7 Training and Visit System
e8 Cost-Sharing Approach
e9 Participatory Agricultural Extension Approach
e10 Educational Institution Approach

Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able
1. To explain the basic concepts in communication;
2. To appreciate the indispensable role of communication in extension;
3. To explain the process of diffusion and adoption; and,
4. To distinguish adult learning from conventional classroom/academic learning.
A Definition
a1 Communication Process
a2 Forms of Communication
a3 Barriers of Communication
a4 Audio-Visual Aids in Extension

B Stages in the Adoption-Rejection Process
a. Awareness
b. Interest
c. Evaluation
d. Trial
e. Adoption-Rejection
C Adopter categories
a. Innovators
b. Early adopters
c. Early majority
d. Late majority
e. Laggards
D Problems and issues in adoption
a. Attributes of technology
a.1 Relative advantage
a.2 Complexity
a.3 Compatibility
a.4 Trialability
a.5 Observability
b. Technology development process
c. Technology dissemination

E Adult Learning and Adult Teaching
a. Principles of Adult teaching and learning
b. Characteristics of adults
c. Knowledge and learning
d. Teaching-Learning models

Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able
1. To illustrate the cycle of a development program; and,
2. To appreciate the value of program planning, monitoring, and evaluation
A. Definition
B. Features of Sound Planning
C. Planning Process
D. M&E in Extension

Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able to
1. Describe the concept and process of community organization;
2. Relate the relevance of CO as a tool in agricultural extension
A. Definition
B. Stages and Process
C. Principles
D. Practical Tips


During the semester, students shall be exposed to various learning methodologies, such as:
1. lecture-discussion
2. e-based interaction through the blog
3. on-site lectures (possibly in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture and NGOs)
4. field demonstration
5. library work and web-based materials
6. field/office interviews

1. Term examinations - Mid-term and final examinations (100 points each) = 200 points
2. Quizzes – announced or unannounced (total of 50 points) = 50
4. Participation in demonstration day (from preparation to dry run to final presentation) =200
5. Assignments – 5 assignments with a total of 50 points = 50

Total =500 points
Computation shall be based on the total points earned by a student (maximum of 500 points), no percent conversion needed, with a 60% passing score, students should be able to compute the letter grade equivalent.

Adhikarya, Romy. 1994. Strategic Extension Campaign: A Participatory-Oriented Method of Agricultural
Extension. FAO of the UN, Rome
Battad, Teodora, et. al. 2003. Agricultural Extension. Grandwater Publications, Makati City, Phils.
Cernea, Michael, et. al. (eds.). 1983. Agricultural Extension by Training and Visit: The Asian Experience. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank, Washington
Chambers, Robert. 1983. Rural Development: Putting the Last First. Butler and Tanner, Ltd., London.
Ettington, Julius. 1989. The Winning Trainer (2nd ed.) Gull Publishing House, Texas
Kwiatskowsky, Lynn. 1999. Struggling with Development: The Politics of Hunger, Ateneo de Manila Press, Q.C.
Mosher, A.T. 1978. An Introduction to Agricultural Extension. Singapore University Press for Agric. Dev’t Council
Ongkoko, Ila and Alexander Flor. 2003. Introduction to Development Communication. SEAMEO SEARCA and the UP
Open University, College, Los Baños, Laguna
Swanson, Burton, et.a. (eds.). 1997. Improving Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual. FAO of the UN, Rome
Van den Ban, A.W. and H.S. Hawkins. 1996. Agricultural Extension (2nd ed). Blackwell Science Lts., Great Britain

and web-based materials – to be announced


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