Trel B

Thursday, June 28, 2007

Unit 1 - Ag Ext

DEar bloggers,
please read the whole unit. we shall have a quick evaluation on Wed/Fri (whichever is applicable to you, depending on your section. We shall discuss this unit after the evaluation. Thanks for visiting.

Trel B



What is development?
There are so many theories, many definitions and measures of development. To quote some of them, hereunder are some definitions of what development means:
“ In order to determine whether a society is developing, one must go beyond criteria based on indices of per capita income (which, expressed in statistical form, are misleading) as well as those which concentrate on the study of gross income. The basic, elementary criterion is whether or not the society is a “being for itself”, i.e., its political, economic and cultural decision-making power is located within.” -Paulo Freire

“…it should be need oriented, geared to meeting both material and non material human needs; endogenous, stemming fro the heart of each society; self-reliant, implying that each society relies primarily on its own strength and resources; ecologically sound, utilizing rationally the resources of the biosphere; and based on structural transformation as an integrated whole. The direction of this structural transformation is indicated by the normative content of the other four points. This implies that there is no universal path to development. Every society must find its own strategy.”

In the 60s, the most accurate measure of the development was the gross national product (GNP), the total money value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given year. In the 70s, the term assumed a deeper meaning. Development was no longer measured by the GNP but on the improvement of the quality of life of the individual. The person himself or herself, therefore, has become the yardsticks.

There is no universal, fixed definition of development because it is relative, multi-dimensional, and process oriented.


1) Growth Theories
a) Balanced Growth Theory- proposes a strategy wherein a country’s development will receive a big push provided agriculture and industry sectors receive equal shares of investment
b) Unbalanced Growth Theory - includes the following theories:
b.1 Deliberate unbalancing theory - involves the prioritization of two sectors (agriculture and industry). One sector receives greater portion of investments. As this sector develops, the effects spill out to other sectors, thus development still occurs
b.2 Capital accumulation theory involves the utilization of the unlimited supplies of labor found in agriculture sector. The assumption here is that once the unlimited supplies of labor are used, development occurs. However, this theory occurs only in the capitalist (industrial sector of society)
b.3 Growth through savings and investment theory-states that every economy must save a certain proportion of its national income if only to replace wornout capital goods. The latter includes buildings, equipment and materials. However, to grow, a country needs new investments representing net additions to the capital stock
c) Structural Theories
a) Dependency theory- views developing countries as being beset by institutional and structural rigidities and caught up in a dependent and dominant relationship with rich nations. The development of a dependent country is conditioned by the powerful country with which the former is attached
b) Developmentalism theory-it is basically welfare-oriented. It believes that the major goal of development is human welfare. It opts for structural reforms that are equity-oriented or redistributive


1. Welfare – spontaneous response to manifestation of poverty usually done by the rich, commonly referred to as “dole-out” by solving the problem and by filling the gap. Basic needs are minimum requirements essential for decent human existence, including items of private consumption and socially provided services

2. Modernization (project) – introduces all resources lacking in the community (e.g. capital, technology, infrastructure, etc.)

3. Ethical – treats a person as the end of the development process and not the means to the end it is also known as “humanism approach” that aims to provide all men the opportunity to live full human lives

4. Liberationist – empowering the poor and the marginalized to break away from unjust structure/system so that they can pursue their interests. It is also known as “conscientization” which is the state of the problems affecting oneself and the society (reflection) and working towards solving such problems collectively with others (action)

In 1973, the Development Academy of the Philippines listed the following development indeces, each is measurable and quantitative:
1. health and nutrition
2. education and skills
3. income and consumption
4. employment
5. capital and non-human resources
6. housing, utilities and environment
7. public safety and justice
8. social mobility
9. political values

What is Agricultural development?

Ø The process of making fuller and more rational use of agricultural resources of a country (or of an area) with special reference to improving the efficiency of agriculture and level of the agricultural population
Ø An intentional change of an agricultural system, which is considered desirable by people. This could be affected by:
v Change in access to productive resources
v Change in technology
v Change in interrelationships between persons and institutions
v Change in environment such as demand for a certain commodity produced in the area and the price relations
v Active intervention by an agency from outside

Among the changes in agriculture are the evolving technologies of modern agriculture and sustainable agriculture

Features of Modern Agriculture:
1. Dynamic society that welcomes innovation and change
2. Highly productive and competitive because it uses modern production and management technology
3. Manned by an enterprising tiller who exercises hi or her right to choose what technology to apply, what crops to raise and when, and to whom to sell his or her product to get the highest returns.

Component Elements Essentials Accelerators PRODUCTION Farm Prod'n incentives Prod'nCredit
Farmer Constantly changing
Farm business Technologies
MARKETING Demands for Market performance
products Transportation
Market system
Confidence in the
market systems
SUPPLY Quality Prod'n incentives Prodn credit
Availability & Educn for dev't
GOVERNANCE Quality control Prod'n incentives Group actions
Law and order by farmers
Activity regulation Improving and
agric'l lands
Nat'l planning
for agric'l
RESEARCH Identification & Availability of Nat'l planning
location of supplies for reg'l devt
researchers to and equipment
undertake Constantly changing
Location, technology
organization and Personal Competence
of research
EDUCATION Demand for Constantly changing Nat'l EXTENSION extension science, Technologies Planning
training, & skills for agric
Educn for

Framework And Dimensions

Ecologically and Environmentally Sound
-biodiversity (where a diverse host of creatures live with other species promotion to multiple varieties/cropping, crop rotation, integration, genetic conservation, alternative/ecological pest management, use of natural pesticides/biological control/ water management/multiple cropping/locally adapted seeds, diversifies integrated farming systems)

Economically Viable (hidden costs on health, soil, water, environment)

Socially Just and Humane
- respects human dignity
- equitable
- land to till
- access to services
- intergenerational equity
- consumers’ rights on toxic free products
- fair trading
- farmers’ control on production inputs

Culturally Sensitive and Appropriate
- respects traditions, values, beliefs and culture of people
- indigenous knowledge
- local knowledge
- sharing of resources/knowledge
- local communication systems (participatory extension)

Appropriate Technology
- location specific (crop, climate, soils, management, market, pests/diseases, etc.)
- participatory research
- affordability

Grounded in Holistic Science
- integrative of local/indigenous knowledge, non-reductionist
- values in farming
- respect on the integrity of creation
- spiritual dimension

Total Human Development
- capacity
- confidence
- analytical ability
- head, mind, heart and body

Sustainability Concerns and Issue:

· SURVIVAL - Main requirement is sufficient food and the means to achieve this is Agriculture
· ECOLOGICALLY ACCEPTABLE PRODUCTION - Where everything removed is replaced so as not to harm ecological system
· THRIVING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ORDER - With production structures and relationships which ensure a fair distribution of income, power, and opportunities, providing basis for social peace
· LONG-TERM CARRYING CAPACITY OF REGIONS – Where there is no negative impact on the environment.



A Science applied to practical purposes; means and methods employed in the production or manufacture of an output; innovations (science is an objective, accurate, systematic analysis of a determine body of empirical data to discover recurring relationships between phenomena)

Categories of Technology

1. component technology – refers to specific cultural techniques in the management/production of crops, livestock, fishery, etc.
2. package of technology (POT) – refers to the combination of all necessary component technologies for production or postproduction activities

Types of Technology

1. product – some technologies take the form of physical goods
2. process – non-tangibles; may refer to a “system” for doing things ( e.g. , models, strategies, etc.)
3. service – provide the complementary activities/services to enhance existing programs/policies of the government
4. information – simply information or significant findings

The Technology Development Process

1. technology generation – scientific and experimental stage

2. technology verification – met the following criteria:
· conducted in farmers ‘ fields
· tested for 2 seasons in TG trials
· shown economic and technical feasibility

3. technology adaptation – met the following criteria:
· only a component of techno conducted in farmers’ field or station
· tested for TG
· good potential for economic feasibility/good potential for acceptance by farmers &
· commercial producers

4. technology dissemination – met the following criteria:
§ general adaptability
§ economic profitability
§ social acceptability
§ potential availability of support services

5. technology commercialization – technologies that have successfully passed the piloting stage or criteria for piloting

Criteria for Selecting Technologies

1. Technical feasibility/General Adaptability
2. Economic Viability
3. Social Acceptability
4. Environmental Soundness
5. Potential Availability of Support Services


Republic Act 3639 - The Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) was created to take over the tasks
on plant research on crop production. Strengthened by Act No. 4007 also known as
Reorganization Law of 1932

Executive Order 216 - Farm Operation division was created to plan and program research
utilization and assignment of arm machinery, to introduce effective farm crop practices
and to provide assistance inefficient management to the bureau’s farm

EO 116 - Placing BPI as staff bureau under the production Group

Presidential Decree 1433 - The plant Quarantine Law
- Plant Quarantine being an activity necessary in crop protection specifically mandates BPI to “prevent the introduction of exotic pests in the country and prevent further spread of plant pests already existing from infested to pest-free areas and to enforce phytosanitary measures for the export of plants, plant product and related articles.

RA 7308 - The National Seed Industry development Act
- Cognizant of the BPI roles in the development of the seen industry and it inherent function for seed and plant material certification, the Act strengthens the Seed Quality Control Section to become the National Seed Quality Control Service and given control supervision over existing field inspections and control services and seed testing laboratories and those which shall have to be established

RA 6657 - Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988
- (An act to promote a more equitable distribution and ownership of land with due regard
to the rights of landowners to just compensation and to the ecological needs of the

RA 7900 - High Value Crops Development Act of 1995
- (An act to promote the production, processing, marketing and distribution of high-
valued crops)

RA 8435 - Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act of 1997
-(An act prescribing urgent related measures to modernize the agriculture and fisheries
sectors of the country to enhance profitability and prepare said sectors for the
challenges of globalization)

RA 7394 - Consumer Act of 1992
-This act reiterates BPI functions by specifically mandating BPI to ensure safe supply of
fresh agricultural crops, and improve the quality of local fresh agricultural crops and
promotes its export

RA 7607 - Magna Carta for Small Farmers
- Recognizing BPI expertise and inherent functions pesticides residue analysis and pesticide formulation, seed production and certification, research, technology transfer and crop protection


MO No. 02 (13 February 06) Temporary Ban on the Importation of Domestic and Wild Birds and their Products Including Poultry Meat, Day Old Chicks, Eggs and Semen Originating from Nigeria
-03 (10 Feb 06) Iraq
-04 (21 Feb 06) India and Egypt
-05 (21 Feb 06) Italy and Greece
-06 (21 Feb 06) Bulgaria, Slovenia and Azerbaijan
-07 (22 Feb 06) Germany
-08 (22 Feb 06) France
-09 (01 Mar 06) France
-10 (02 Mar 06) Turkey and Egypt
-13 (20 Mar 06) Albania, Cameroon, Denmark, Myanmar, Serbia and Montenegro, Poland and Switzerland
-15 (24 Mar 2006) Afghanistan, Georgia, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Niger, Slovakia and Sweden
-16 (10 Apr 2006) United Kingdom

MO No. 12 (03 March 2006)
Temporary Ban on the Importation of FMD-Susceptible Animals, their Products and By-Products Originating from Argentina

AO No. 5 (07 March 2006) Delineation in the Registration of Animal Feeds and Veterinary Drugs and Products

AO 06 (18 April 2006) Guidelines on the Production, Regulation, Promotion, Procurement and Distribution of Seeds and Planting Materials



  • gud aftrnun checking your blog for our notes.....thanx.....Have a blessed Sunday!

    By Blogger rachel mae, at 10:40 PM  

  • good afternoon ma'am, I just want to ask if when are you going to update your blog? if is it weekly or not..because I'm afraid that you'll going post an assignment on Tuesday and then to be submitted on Wednesday,so I might not submit the assignment on time.Thank you ma'am...
    from: Rachel Mae D. Rivera
    AgExt 51 B student

    By Blogger rachel mae, at 10:47 PM  

  • Rachel, don't worry. Yes, I will update it on a weekly basis, or do some posting on a weekly basis. In this way you will not be overwhelmed by too many reading assignments given simultaneously. Of course, I will giveyou enough time foryour assignment. thanks for visiting. Let's keep in touch.
    -Trel b

    By Blogger Estrella ET Borja, at 4:56 PM  

  • Good evening ma'am Trel:

    As tasked to view your blog on a Wednesday for the handouts, I found no new set.
    Will it be available before Saturday (Feb.2)?


    Kethlyn Chavez

    By Blogger kethlyn, at 3:18 AM  

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