Trel B

Saturday, July 14, 2007

Assignment and Units 4& 5

Dear bloggers,
Please read the following two units in advance. For the Wed class, please prepare for a long exam exam. Coverage is the the first three chapters. For the Fri class, the long exam shall be on the 27th.
Assignment for both sections
1. techno demo- kindly make sure you go back to your faculty/department or unit adviser to finalize the techno for demonstration.You need to show me a slip with the faculty signature as a proof that you have consulted your unit/department. I understand that the ansci students had a meeting with Dr. Paduano last saturday. You should be able to resubmit the final techno on or before wednesday (18th July). Crop sci students need to see again Mr Dalapag for the final techno. Sorry, but for some teams, the faculty felt that some of you are about to present techno that may not really be that worthy of presentation. This goes without saying that the brochure outline may also change with the change of techno. Very important: for the techno presentations this year, with the theme focusing on the science and enterprise side of agirculture, make sure that you also highlight the business potential/thebusiness enterprise of the techno. This means that you should be able to present how much it will cost, what would be the business opportunities/potentials, the return on investment, etc.
For your guidance.
2. research on latest innovations in the field of agriculture. focus on those that may be applicable in our region/locality. submit your assignment during the next meeting (wed or fri, as the case may be). at least three innovations. include a brief description and a rationalization why you think these innovations are important and possibly significant for the region/Mindanao.
good luck. please do your assignment.
Trel b



-Comes from the Latin word “communis” which means “to make common.”
-Process of sharing, relationship of participants in the process (Kincaid and Schramm)

Various Definitions of Communication

Aristotle – all available means of persuasion
Laswell – describes it as who says what in which channel, to whom and with what effect.
Berlo – a process by which a source sends message to some channels to a receiver to effect behavior.
Schramm – the sharing of meaning between two individuals who have similar experiences and similar meaning.


Source – initiator of the communication activity (person or group of persons or any of the media).
Receiver – the person to whom the message is directed.
Message – the physical product of the source transmitted to the receiver; set of symbols.
Channel – medium utilized to convey a message; effective links.
Effect – the result; response, reactions of the impact of the message to the receiver regardless of whether or not the message belongs to the source.
Feedback – response of the receiver that is communicated to the source.


1. Communication skills – there are five verbal communication skills:
For encoding – writing and speaking
For decoding – listening
For both – thought or reason
2. Attitudes – bias or predisposition towards something or someone.
3. Knowledge level – this includes knowledge level about the subject matter, ones own attitudes, characteristics and source-receiver, ways in which the source-receiver can treat messages and communication channels from which the source-receiver can choose.
4. Social system – refers to the group of which a person belongs, his or her perceptions of his or her place in the world, position in own social class, rank and similar aspects, which affect communication behavior.
5. Cultural system – refers to the person’s beliefs, values, ways of making things and ways of behaving.

Other Concepts Concerning Source:

1. Credibility
· Set of perceptions about sources held by receivers
· Credibility factors: competence or expertise, safety or trustworthiness and dynamism plus smooth interpersonal relationship
2. Status Differential
· Each occupies a number of role positions
· Each role demands a particular behavior
· Each role has a status that goes with it
3. Homophily
· Similarity of source to receiver (attributes such as beliefs, values, education, etc.)
· It determines level of acceptance of message by receiver
· Also affects attitude of source to receiver and vise-versa
4. Heterophily
· Degree to which source is different from receiver affecting source-receiver attitudes and acceptance of message
5. Opinion Leader
· Anyone approached by others for advice
· Perceived by followers as credible, influential and authoritative
6. Charisma
· Possession of certain characteristics (cannot be easily explained/defined)

Other Concepts Concerning Receiver:

1. Obstinate Audience
· People select from messages
· What they remember depends on the use they expect to have
2. Psychological Orientation
· Psychological factors salient to receiver’s action towards a message:
a. Processes of selective attention, perception and retention
b. Information processing capacity
c. Perception as influenced by past experiences, needs and motivations, mental set, interests
3. Social-Psychological Orientation
· Receiver’s response to a message is influenced by open-mindedness, self-esteem, beliefs and values, achievement motivation and risk orientation
4. Sociological Orientation
a. Sociological factors that influence receiver’s persuasibility:
b. Group membership
c. Roles and functions in membership groups
d. Reference groups
e. Norms and rules of membership groups
f. Customs and traditions


Message – the actual product of the source-encoder and consists of symbols and stimuli which have meanings for people, and which can elicit particular responses from them.


The components of a message are code, content and treatment. Code is a group of symbols or a set of rules for combining the symbols, while content is the material in the message that was selected by the source to express his or her purpose. Meanwhile, the decision which the source makes in selecting and arranging both codes and content in the treatment.

The meaning of a message is not in the elements of a message, it is in the experience of the source-receiver. There are four types of meaning: denotative, connotative, structural and contextual.

Other Concepts Concerning Message:

1. Kinesics – Body communication
· Emblems (gestures translated into verbal code system)
· Illustrations (body movements that accompany speech)
· Affect display (body motions which indicate state of emotions)
· Regulators (gestures and facial movements which help control flow of communication)
· Adaptory (more personal idiosyncratic movement and individual develops)
2. Entropy
· Tendency of mass to break into parts
· Measure of capacity of system to undergo spontaneous charge
3. Meaning
· Thought, idea or information received and expressed by language
· Inherent in definition of language; end result of language
4. Semantic deferential
· Research scale employed to ascertain meaning people ascribe to certain kinds of social object and relationships
5. Semantics
· Study between words and things described
· Two theoretical approaches: a) meaning – what information/ideas are expressed; b) reference – what is the true meaning of words
6. Proxemics
· How one unconsciously structures space to convey meaning
· Dimensions are:
a. Postural – sex identifiers (posture and sex of source and receiver)
b. Sociofugal – societal orientation (physical directness of communication; specifies relationship of person’s shoulders to another)
c. Kinesthetic factor (closeness of two persons involved in communication and potentials of holding, grasping, touching each other)
d. Touch (amount and type of physical contact between parties)
e. Vision (visual contact between persons)
f. Thermal (amount of body heat of one perceived by the other)
g. Loudness (vocal volume)
h. Smell (detection of odor)
7. Paralanguage
· Non-verbal cues which surround verbal system
· Vocal but non-verbal dimension of speech
· Focus on manner it was said than what was said
8. Territoriality
· Person lays claim on particular space/territory and resets invasion
9. Proxemic Distance
· Four kinds: intimate, personal, social and public
· Indicates relationship between source and receiver
10. Common Field of Experience
· When person enters into communication situation, he/she assumes something in common with the other to begin with (e.g. common language or symbols whose meaning they share)
11. Referent
· Meaning anyone is able to read into signs depends on experience with them and referent
12. Presentation
· Manner of presentation of message (e.g. one-sided vs. two-sided, etc.)


The channel is the medium used to transmit a message. It is the effective link interconnecting the source-receiver codes in a communication structure through which messages flow.

1. Hypodermic Needle
· Audience is atomized mass of disconnected individuals
· Direct and immediate stimulus-response relationship between source and receiver of message
· Receivers are inactive, passive
2. Two-step Flow
· Ideas often flow from mass media to opinion leaders and from them to less active sections of population
· Opinion leader is one who tries to convince others of his or her opinions or is sought out by others for opinions
3. Gatekeeper
· One who controls strategic position of channel
· May or may not transmit information within group and may not be influential
4. Multiple Channels
· Use of many senses as possible
5. Noise
· Fidelity of message depends on quality of noise present during transmission of message


The effect can be immediate or delayed. It is immediate when it occurs as soon as the receiver accepts the message, when it is delayed when the impact of the accepted message is felt after a length of time.

If the effect elicited by the message is not equal to or more than the purpose of communication, then, the communication has not been effective.

Effects can also be either observable or non-observable. Observable effects are those immediately detectable through the senses of an onlooker to the situation. Non-observable or covert effects are those not immediately detectable by the observer.

Communication can change five aspects and these can overlap. These effects are change in attitude, opinion, perception, action and emotion. Changes in opinion, perception and action are observable, while changes in attitude are not, some emotional changes are observable, others are not.

Other Concepts Concerning Effects:

a) Learning
· Process by which some aspects of human behavior is acquired or changed through individual’s encounter with events in the environment
· Responses:
a. Differential – difference in individual’s ability to respond, readiness to respond, motivation to respond
b. Frames of references – principles are reinforcement (helpful in establishing response), active participation (better than passive), meaningful responses
c. Habitual – as rewarded responses increase, probability that response be made increases
-keep short interval between responses and reward for effective building of habit patterns
d. Consequences – individuals tend to generalize responses they made
b) Balance
· Involves two persons, one as focus of analysis; a third element is present which is an impersonal entity (e.g. physical object, idea, event, etc.)
· The structure of focus of analysis representing relations among him or her, the other person and the third entity is either balanced or unbalanced

c) Interaction
a. Definition-physical – when people are communicating, they rely on physical existence of the other for production or reception of messages; interdependent
b. Action-reaction – action of source affects action of receiver and vice-versa
c. Interdependence of expectations – ability to project ourselves into other people’s responsibilities
-process through which we arrive at expectations, anticipations of internal psychological states of persons
d. Interaction – two individuals make interferences about own roles and take role of the other at the same time
-six types: cooperation, competition, conflict, accommodation, loving and trusting
-variables: attractiveness, proximity, reinforcement, similarity, and complementarily
d) Feedback
· Information that comes back to sender
· Must be immediate, honest, clear and informative
e) Cognitive-Dissonance
· Lack of harmony between what one knows and what one does or has done
f) Cybernetics
· Correcting its course when it encounters cross-currents
g) Functionalism
· Consequences that enhance or maintain health or integral organization of referent individual, group or society
h) Homeostasis
· System has the tendency to retain its state or characteristics
i) Sleeper Effect
· Information originally rejected by receiver as coming from “untrustworthy” source will later be accepted as receiver forgets about the source
j) Hawthorne Effect
· The environment, source, message and channel or communication situation may have no effect on individual who is the subject of study
k) Determinants of Effect
· Depends on characteristics of source, message, channel and receiver and the resources available to receiver


1. Intrapersonal - A communication transaction that takes place within individual

2. Interpersonal - Communication between two or more people who are conscious of each other’s presence. The physical proximity allows them to interact on face-to-face basis to generate immediate feedback; direct exchange between individuals who can be designated into roles as source and audience

Types of interpersonal communication:
A. Face-to-Face. This occurs between two persons, or within a group, as long as the communicators are able to see and interact with each other as individuals. Examples of this are teacher-student consultations, group or community meetings, or discussions, and class lectures.

B. Mediated. This occurs when a device such as a telephone or computer is placed in between the source and audience. Examples of this are telephone conversation, e-mail, online chat, and letter writing.

Interpersonal Communication

In this situation, the source and the receiver can:
· see each other
· Talk back and forth
· Interrupt each other
· Make responses that both can readily or immediately receive

Interpersonal channels of communication are those means of transmitting or getting a message from one person to another, which involves a face-to-face exchange. Comparatively, mass media channels are those means of transmitting messages from one person to another involving the use of mass media such as newspapers, radio, television, etc.

3. Mass. Mass communication is a process directed toward relatively large, heterogeneous and audiences who are known. Messages are transmitted publicly to reach most number of audiences simultaneously.

Media and new technology – new term for mass communication

• directed to general public and, therefore, highly impersonal; allows large-scale dissemination of messages to audiences who are dispersed over wide geographical area.
• most common forms of mass media are
• print, i.e., newspapers and magazines
• broadcast, i.e., radio and television
• film
• Apart from these easily recognizable media, other forms are:
• music recordings
• advertising, and other strategies for product marketing and publicity

4. Group and Team communication – transforms collection of individuals into cohesive
• Group and organizational communication happens within and between groups, organizations and institutions, also in face-to-face or mediated situations:

• Face-to-Face. Group meetings, discussions, lectures, messages with or without use of microphones
• Mediated. Some forms of media or communications technologies used to disseminate messages. Depending on who are addressed by message, can be internal or external.

• Internal. Communication is limited to the members of the group or the organization. This happens when the members are provided with information through standard memos and organizational newsletters.
• External. Communication is directed to non-members – other groups, organizations or general public. For example, media announcements and press releases.

5. Public communication – public speaking

6. Organizational Communication - Communication that happens in professional settings

7. Intercultural communication - communication among societies of different cultures

8. Transpersonal communication – communicating with the personal being

How Do We Communicate?

We communicate through symbols and non-verbal language. A symbol is any object, mode of conduct, or word, which a person acts as if it were something else. Anything that has a meaning is a symbol. A symbol is used to represent something.

Non-verbal language includes kinesics, physical characteristics, touching behavior, paralanguage, proxemics, artifacts and environment factors.

Kinesics are motions of the body including the face. These may include gait; movement of hands, arms and legs; gestures; facial expressions, etc. these body motions provide extensive cues about a person’s mood, intent and openness to interaction.

Physical characteristics may include body type, height, weight, color of based largely on one’s stereotypes about any of those physical characteristics. In most cultures, physical attractiveness facilitates the building of self-esteem and interpersonal relationships.

Touching is one of the five senses. Touching and being touched are considered essential to healthy psychological growth. Touching is very powerful means of expressing emotion, affection and reassurance. Unfortunately, our culture does not encourage touching behaviors except between intimate individuals. Puerto Ricans perform 180 touches per hour, France – 110 touches per hour, USA – 2 touches per hour and England – 0.

Paralanguage refers to sounds that are not words and vocal qualities such as pitch and rate. It deals with how things are said. It often indicates a speaker’s mood. Our interpretation of messages depends largely on cues of tone, infliction, rhythm, articulation and resonance.

Proxemics is the distance we place in reference to other and how we use and structure space. It provides cues to personal and cultural preferences for interaction and privacy. The human use and perceptions space vary among cultures. We may sit opposite others (indicating hostility), beside them (indicating quality), or at an angle to them (indicating cooperation. Territoriality refers to the tendency of animals and humans to stake out personal territories.

Artifacts are personal objects that influence self-presentation and interaction. These may include jewelry, clothes, glasses, other personal effects, etc. people express much of themselves through the artifacts they select and the ways in which they manipulate them.

The environmental factors which we may or may not be able to control include those elements in the setting that influence our definitions or situations. These may include furniture, decorations, sounds, movements, temperature, weather, etc.

What is communication and what it is not:
-Not all communication has to be human communication
-Not all participants in a communication process have to be presented at the same time
-It can take place over large distances of space and time
-Not all communication takes place in words
-It does not always require two or more participants
-Thinking is a form of communication

Therefore, Communication is a Process, meaning:
-On-going -No beginning, no end
-Ever changing -Interdependent
-Inter-related -Cyclic


1. technical - how accurate can message be transmitted
2. effectiveness – how effective does message affect behavior
3. physical – environmental, channel noise
4. psychological-cultural – semantic factors within source/receiver (emotional blocks,
stereotyping, charisma, etc)
a) channel noise - static, wrong spelling
b) environmental factors/conditions
c) semantic - how precise the meaning is conveyed; different meanings, double meanings

Semantic noise includes:
• Distraction
• Differences in the use of the language code
• Emphasizing the wrong part of the message
• Attitude towards the sender
• Attitude towards the message

5. social -others that arise from communicators’ role and stature
6. others - ethnocentrism, experiences


Visual aids are devices used by extension agents to help to get their message across to rural audience since among the five senses, the most important in learning are sight and hearing; devices which utilize the sense of sight to improve communication

(Forms, representatives or reproduction of concepts or things are termed as Primary Visuals)

Kinds of Visual Aids:
1. Non-projected visuals
· Chalkboards
· Objects
· Pictures (powerful “attention getters” and “explainers” when used with news articles in newspapers and magazines)
· Posters
· Flannel graphs
· Charts (series of diagrams, illustrations, pictures, etc)

Charts – information supplied in tabular form to show sequences and relationships
Graphs – diagrams or lines representing numerical qualities intended for quick comparisons and contrast of statistical information
Line graphs – important in showing trends and relationships; most accurate of all graphs

2. Projected visuals
· Slides, filmstrips, films, overhead projector transparencies

3. Others
Models – realistic replicates of real things
Specimen – representative of a class or group of objects
Maps – flat representation of some portions of the earth’s surface



Diffusion – The process of spreading technology/ information from one group/agency/person to another
Innovation – An idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an Individual
Technology - science applied to practical purposes; means and methods employed in production or manufacture of output; innovation; generated by research, inventive farmers and others; symbol of modernization
Innovation-decision process - mental process through which individual passes from first knowledge of innovation to decision to adopt or reject
Innovation-decision period - length of time required to pass through innovation-decision process. Adoption of innovation is primarily an outcome of a learning and decision-making process
Diffusion effect - the cumulatively increasing degree of influence upon an individual within a social system to adopt or reject an innovation
Over adoption - adoption of innovation when experts feel he/she should reject
Symbolic adoption - mental acceptance of innovation without necessarily “putting it into practice”
Sequential adoption - adoption of part of package of technology initially and subsequently adds components over time.
Innovation dissonance - discrepancy between individual’s attitude toward innovation and ones decision to adopt or reject an innovation
Discontinuance - decision to cease use of an innovation after previously adopting it, with two
a) Replacement discontinuance –innovation is rejected because a better
idea supersedes it
b) Disenchantment discontinuance –innovation is rejected as a result of
dissatisfaction with its performance.

The rate of awareness-knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption.
Earlier adopters have shorter innovation-decision period than later adopters.

(Five distinct stages in the adoption process and sample extension methods)

1. Awareness – different mass media could be used to provide the individual with knowledge of the innovation and create awareness (e.g. mass media, popular theater). It is at this stage that the innovation’s complexity and compatibility should be most important
2. Interest – whatever is the desired method to be used it should include information strengthening and attitude building (e.g. group meetings/discussions, radio forum, farm visit, etc.). It is at this stage that the innovation’s relative advantage and observability should be most important
3. Evaluation – the most critical stage in the adoption process because the outcome generally determines whether or not the individual proceeds to the trial and adoption stages (e.g. result demonstration, farmer exchange, etc.). It is at this stage that the innovation’s trialability should be most important.
4. Trial – methods for reinforcing the farmers’ interest should be used (individual visit, farmer exchange, demonstration, on-farm visit, etc.)
5. Adoption or Rejection – the acceptance or rejection of an idea or product (e.g. recognition program, competition, etc.)

A model of innovation-decision process:

1. Knowledge – the individual is exposed to the innovation’s existence and gains some understanding of how it functions.
2. Persuasion – the individual forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation.
3. Decision – the individual engages in activities, which lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.
4. Confirmation – the individual seeks reinforcement for the innovation-decision made, but may reverse previous decision if exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation.
§ An innovation is an idea, practice or object perceived as new by an individual, something new and novel in human knowledge and experience.
§ Technology is a means of performing or a capacity to perform a particular activity; generated buy research, inventive farmers and others; considered as a symbol of modernization.
§ Innovation-decision process is the mental process through which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation to a decision to adopt or reject and to confirmation of this decision. Innovation-decision period is the length of time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. Adoption of innovation is primarily an outcome of a learning and decision-making process.
§ Diffusion is defined as the acceptance overtime of some specific item – an idea or practice, by individuals, group or other adopting units, linked to a specific channel of communication to a social structure and to a given system of values or culture. Diffusion of innovations is a major source of social, technical and environmental change.
§ Diffusion effect is the cumulatively increasing degree of influence upon an individual within a social system to adopt or reject an innovation.
§ Over adoption is defined as the adoption of an innovation by an individual when experts feel he/she should reject. Reasons for over adoption include: insufficient knowledge about the new idea; inability to predict its consequences, a mania for the new.
§ Adoption of a new idea is the result of human interaction
§ Symbolic adoption is defined as mental acceptance of an innovation without necessarily “putting it into practice”.
§ Sequential adoption is adoption of a part of a package of technology initially and subsequently adds components over time.
§ Innovation dissonance is the discrepancy between an individual’s attitude toward an innovation and ones decision to adopt or reject an innovation. Discontinuance is a decision to cease use of an innovation after previously adopting it, with two types:
a) Replacement discontinuance – an innovation is rejected because a better idea supersedes it;
b) Disenchantment discontinuances – an innovation is rejected as a result of dissatisfaction with its performance.

§ The rate of awareness-knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption.
§ Earlier adopters have shorter innovation-decision period than later adopters.


The extension method chosen will depend on the following: goal, resources, relationship with clients, skills of the extension agent on the one hand, and the size and educational level of the target group on the other.

Types of Adopters

1. Innovators (Venturesome) – the first to adopt; they introduce the idea; they are
few; the daring and the risky but willing to accept occasional setbacks.
2. Early adopters or influentials (Respectable) – the second group to adopt and the most
important; they are quick to see the value of a new practice; these are also the opinion
leaders who are respected by their peers. The fact that they adopted the new idea makes it
acceptable for the others to do so. If the influentials are not receptive to the idea, the
adoption process will have difficulty to continue. They are more integrated in local social
3. Early majority (Deliberate) – they get their social cues from the influentials; adopt a
practice only after they are convinced of its value. They adopt new ideas just before the
average member of a social system; rarely hold leadership positions; deliberate before
completely adopting a new idea. They do not want to be the last to lay the old aside, nor
the first one to try what is new.
4. Late majority – large blocks of less wealthy; they get their cues either from the influentials or from the early majority; adopt a practice only when it is generally acceptable by the community
5. Late adopters/ Laggards (Traditional) – they have three sources for reference and the last to adopt; very slow in making a decision whether or not to adopt an innovation and are left behind in the process; reference is the past; frankly suspicious; no opinion leadership
6. Die-hards – never adopt to the new idea

The Adoption Curve


1. product – physical goods
2. process – non-tangibles; may be “system” for doing things (e.g. models, strategies, etc.)
3. service –complementary activities/ services to enhance existing programs/ policies of government
4. information – simply information or significant findings

1. generation – scientific and experimental stage
2. verification – met the following criteria:

conducted in farmers ‘ fields
tested for 2 seasons in TG trials
showed economic, technical feasibility

3. adaptation – met the following criteria:

only component of techno conducted in farmers’ field or station
tested for TG
good potential for economic feasibility/acceptance by farmers & commercial producers

4. dissemination – met the following criteria:
§ general adaptability
§ economic profitability
§ social acceptability
§ potential availability of support services

5.commercialization –successfully passed piloting stage


1. Technical feasibility/General Adaptability
2. Economic Viability
3. Social Acceptability
4. Environmental Soundness
5. Potential Availability of Support Services


Attributes of Innovation/Technology:

There are variables that also influence the attributes of people and determine the adoption or
rejection of an innovation as perceived by the receiver of the technology or innovation:

1. relative advantage – the degree to which an innovation is superior to one it is intended to replace considering the following: degree of economic profitability, initial cost, perceived risk, discomfort, time/effort/resources saved, immediacy of reward. The perceived relative advantage is positively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more advantageous it is, the greater is the rate of adoption.
2. compatibility – the extent to which an innovation fits into farmer’s views about what ought to be. What he or she does in the farm, and how he or she does it, whether or not it is consistent with existing values, experiences and needs. The perceived compatibility of a new idea is positively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more compatible the technology is, the greater is the rate of adoption.
3. complexity - some innovations are simply more complicated than others or perceived as relatively difficult to understand while some are clear to potential adopters. The perceived complexity of an innovation is negatively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more complex the innovation, the lesser is the rate of adoption.
4. trialability - quality of an innovation that allows trying or experimentation a little at a time. The perceived trialability of an innovation is positively related to its adoption, meaning, the greater would be the chance of adopting the innovation if it could be tried or experimented
5. observability – the extent to which an innovation or its results can be observed or visible to others. The perceived observability of an innovation is positively related to its adoption, meaning, the more observable it is the greater is the rate of adoption


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