Trel B

Friday, July 06, 2007

Units 2 & 3


Historical Antecedents of Agricultural Extension
a.1 Extension in Europe and in the USA
a.2 Extension in the Philippine Setting

B. Extension Defined
b.1 Philosophy
b.2 Goals and Objectives
b.3 Types of Extension


Beginnings: started in Europe as early as the 16th century
1826 - British politician founded the society for the diffusion of useful knowledge
1840s - use of the term ‘university extension’ of the university was first
recorded in Britain
1867-68 -first practical steps were taken when James Stuart, Fellow of trinity College, Cambridge, gave lectures to women’s associations and working men’s club in the North of England. Stuart is often considered the ‘Father of University Extension’
1871 -Stuart approached authorities in University of Cambridge and appealed to them to organize centers for extension lectures under the university’s supervision
1873 -“Extension Education” was first introduced as an organized university function
- Cambridge formally adopted the system
1876 - London University followed the system
1880 - the work was referred to as the ‘extension movement’ (i.e., the University extended its
use beyond the campus
Beginning of - extension education was used in the USA to indicate that the 20th target group for university teaching should not be century restricted to students on campus but extended to people living anywhere in the state. For many years this was only an activity of the College of agriculture. Towards the end of the 19th century, Agricultural Extension became widespread in USA

distant origins - Agricultural extension was already made even prior to the emergence of modern agricultural extension (e.g. in Mesopotamia, the present-day Iraq, archaeologist have unearthed clay tablets on which were inscribed advice on watering crops and getting rid of rats

modern - came into the existence as a result of a crisis and the initiative agricultural of the occupant of the high office of authority-the outbreak of the extension potato blight in Europe in 1845; severely affected was Ireland; potato famine persisted until 1851

Extension of the Philippines

Spanish Era
1565 - setting of Granja Modelos (model farms); beginnings of extension work in the
- First Spanish missionaries initiated education the farmers who grew rice, sugarcane &
tobacco in large encomiendas
- Granja served as experimental stations of the Spanish government and demonstration
centers for farmers

American Era
1901 (Oct 8) - Beginning of extension work during the American regime; no definite plan until
30 April 1902 with the establishment of the Bureau of Agriculture
1910 (July) - creation of the Demonstration and Extension Division (DED) under the Bureau
making it the first formally organized government department
1919 (July 10) - DED expanded its activity to include farmers’ coop organizations, rural credit,
marketing and animal insurance; persons engaged in this work were called farm advisers
1923 - DED was changed to Agricultural Extension Service
- start of Home Extension work (later known as Div. Of Home Economics) by Maria Y.

Commonwealth Period
1936 - Commonwealth Act 85 established the provincial Extension Services financed by the
provincial and municipal governments
- For the first time, extension service in the Philippines became a serious organized
business; position of provincial agriculturist was created; farm advisers were now called
extension agents
- Commonwealth Act 649 enacted later increasing appropriation for extension work
1937 - Commonwealth Act 85 authorized each province to employ a few home demonstrators to
show home extension work
1938 - The Bureau of Animal Industry organized its own extension activities establishing a
Livestock Extension Division
1942-45 - During Japanese occupation, home economics and agricultural extension work
suffered drawbacks

Post-war period
1947 - Home Extension Units of the Plant Utilization Division of the Bureau of Plant Industry
was fused with Agricultural Extension of the Bureau; purely research functions were left
with the Plant Utilization Division
1950 - Bell Survey Mission came to the Philippines and recommended among others, the
consolidation of the scattered extension organizations in the different bureaus into one
that would adequately extent information to farm families
1952 (July) - enactment of RA 680 that created the Bureau of agricultural Extension (BAEx)
1963 (Aug 8) - BAEx was renamed Agricultural Productivity Commission (APC under the Office
of the President
- Agricultural Land Reform Code was signed into Law (RA 3844)
- Since then until Martial Law was declared, several reorganizations happened, there
were misunderstanding and inter-departmental conflicts along the way)
1972 (Nov. 1) - the APC was reverted to its original name, the Bureau of
Agricultural Extension
1973 (July 1) - BAEx was placed again under the Department of Agriculture
- Abaca and other Fibers Board was fused with BAEx
1977 - The Ministry of Agriculture, through BAEx, took over the preparation of the project study on the adoption of the Training and Visit System (T and V) in the Philippine
- Agricultural Service (T&V concept was developed by Daniel Benor and James Harrison and introduced in the WB assisted projects)
- Proposal for the National Extension Project (NEP) was appraised by the World Bank Mission
1978 - BAEx became a staff bureau under the Ministry of Agriculture
together with BPI, Bureaus of Soils, Cooperatives, etc
1979 (Mar 27) - WB approved $35 million loan; NEP became fully operational
1987 - Exit BAEx, Enter ATI (BAEx, Phil. Agricultural Training Council
and the Philippine Training Center for Rural Dev’t were merged
into the Agricultural Training Institute)

In Retrospect:
16th C onwards - growth and development of the agricultural extension
service was in response to or a consequence of certain
events of the time
Spanish regime - focus on farm demos were the educational means to
show Filipinos ‘appropriate’ ways of farming
American period - more serious attempts to ‘extend’ agricultural services

Historically, extension was derived from an educational development in England serving the educational needs, near to their homes of the rapidly growing population. Extension was useful to impart information to all classes of community, particularly to such who were unable to avail themselves of experience teachers. It was considered as the process of extending or dissemination relevant information to the adult population at large.


Concept of Extension
-core concept of extension is education (Mosher, 1975)
-a method of non-formal education aimed at inducing behavioral changes to improve
technical knowledge and skills to enable them in income-generating projects…(Swanson, 84)
-an educational activity outside the usual school that involves formal institutions
reaching out to needy clients… (Valera,, 1987)
-It is the dissemination of relevant information and advice to farmers; a mechanism for delivering
information and advice as an input into modern farming.
-It involves the conscious use of communication of information to help people form sound
opinions and make good decisions (Van den Ban,, 1996)

Common Elements in the Definitions of EXTENSION
o Extension is an intervention
o Extension uses communication as its instrument to induce change
o Extension can be effective only through voluntary change
o Extension focuses on a number of different target processes and outcomes which distinguish it from other communication interventions
o Extension is deployed by an institutions

It is therefore, a professional communication intervention deployed by an institution to induce change in voluntary behaviors with a presumed public or collective utility (Roling, 1988)

What is an Intervention?
A systematic effort to strategically apply resources to manipulate seemingly casual elements in an on-going social process so as to permanently re-orient that process in directions deemed desirable by the intervening part.

Technical Intervention Vs. Intervening Through People

Technical Intervention vs.
Intervening Through People

Technical Intervention:
• Q animal is sick
• Q plant is stunted
• Q unsanitary living conditions
• Q meals not nutritious

Intervening Through People:
q No agricultural skills
Q traditional knowledge with no scientific basis
q negative attitude

extension agent works to influence changes on the farmers’
inadequacies and negativities for consequent changes in farm/home


A. Agricultural Extension - provides technical advice on agriculture to farmers, facilitates the needed requirements and services to support the farmers’ agricultural production efforts. It links farmers with agricultural research stations and passes on new knowledge developed by agricultural research stations.

b. Non-Agricultural Extension - there are other factors that affect farming communities which may not be directly related to agriculture and yet these have effects on the way farmers and their families live, such as concerns on health and nutrition, education, etc.

Whether agricultural or non-agricultural, extension may be categorized as:
1. Informative extension
2. Emancipatory extension
3. Formative extension
4. Persuasive extension


[Philosophy is defined as a set of belief or aim; system of thought (Encarta Encyclopedia, 2004)]

1. Educational Process – brings about desirable changes in human behavior. These are changes in what people know (knowledge), what they think (attitude), they can do (skills) and what they actually do (motivation); it is carried on either with groups or with individuals
2. Democratic process
- extension workers never impose anything
- promotes self-help
- forming and strengthening of local organizations
- group thinking, discussion, planning and action
3. Indigenous Knowledge – rural people possess basic knowledge, they are intelligent and are
capable of knowing; extension must begin from where they are
4. Continuous process – extension begins with the present situation and strive to achieve a
desirable solution; since there are no limits to our social and economic advancement,
extension therefore is a continuous process


1. To act as intermediary (mediator) between agricultural development institutions and target groups making available to farmers the latest research results for understanding and application
2. To teach people in rural areas how to raise their standards of living by their own efforts using their own resources of manpower and materials, with the minimum assistance from government and any agencies.
3. To find out what the farming community feels it needs, what are the problems involved and then to supply the answers to these problems/mobilize all necessary resources in extension work including farm inputs, concerned agencies/institutions, funds, facilities, and experts/people involved in the dissemination/adoption of innovation in the rural environment.
4. To encourage local leadership and spirit of self-help
5. To establish/structure new institutions whether state-organized or self-help institutions that
can influence the whole agricultural production system.

1. -farmers 1. Sustainability
2. -women 2. Accountability
3. -youth 3. Reliability
4. -all 4. Participatory
5. Efficiency


1. Enabler – provides farmers with resources, authority, opportunities to be able to do something; capacitates people
2. Educator – facilitates learning for people to deal with their needs
3. Mediator – works with both sides/involved parties to try to help the parties involved in conflict or misunderstanding reach an agreement
4. Farmer aid – or technician roles wherein the extension agent provides technical expertise for people’s technical problems
5. Facilitator – in the dialect, this means “tigpahapsay” o ‘tigpasayon’; mobilizes people into organized action for a purpose

[Principle is defined as a basic assumption; standard of moral or ethical decision-making (Encarta Encyclopedia, 2004)]

1. Communication and Education
- Extension agent’s role: communication and education; . It is an informal educational process, which aims through making wise use of natural resources for the benefit of the individual, the family, the community and the nation.
- Communication: pass on useful information and technology to people who need them
- Education: help rural people acquire the knowledge, skills and attitude that will help them effectively utilize the information or technology
2. Works with Rural People
- For impact and sustainability, work with the not for the people
- People must participate and make decisions that will benefit them; extension agents must assist them by providing all the information needed and possible alternative solutions to clientele problems

3. Accountability to the clientele
- Extension agent must justify to the organization whatever action he/she takes and be accountable and responsible to the clientele on whatever advice or information given to them.
- The clientele is the one to pass judgment on the success or failure of the extension
4. Two-way Process Linkage
- Disseminate information and technology to and receive feedback from clientele so that their needs can be better fulfilled
- Learn from the clientele the wealth of their experiences
5. Cooperates with other agencies
- Extension is only one aspect of many economic, social, cultural and political activities that hope to produce for the betterment of the rural masses
- Extension should therefore cooperate and collaborate with both GOs and NGOs to accomplish the above
- Extension cant be effective on its own as its activities must be interdependent on other related activities
6. Different Target Groups
- Extension clientele is made up of various target groups with different needs, social status, cultural and economic background
- Extension therefore cannot offer a package of technology for all its clientele due to this heterogeneity
- There must therefore be targeting extension, meaning different programs and technology packages for different target groups.
7. Economic necessity
– Extension serves the economic objectives of the nation through the productive use of the
country’s natural resources.

(From Battad’s: Principles of Extension include the following:)
1. cultural difference (same as no. 6 above)
2. cultural change (same as no 6. above)
3. interests and needs (same as no. 6 above)
4. grassroots approach (same as no. 2 above)
5. cooperation (same as no. 5)
6. participation (same as no. 2)
7. use of extension teaching methods (same as no. 1)
8. leadership (same as no. 3)
9. voluntary education (same as no. 1)
10. satisfaction
11. trained specialists
12. whole family approach

The following principles may also be considered:
1. Extension is not a form of charity and the extension worker must never be guilty of ‘giving something for nothing’
2. Extension work must never be forced on people for them themselves. Must learn to feel the need and ask for help in reaching a solution for their problems, or better still, for the people to solve their problems
3. People must take part in every stage of extension work
4. Extension worker must be content with steady progress and avoid attempting to do “to much to fast”
5. progress extension largely depends on training and effectiveness of local leaders


Over the years, extension has become more participatory. This means that there is a growing recognition of the importance of the involvement of the local people as active participants in the entire process of research and extension.


Transfer of Technology
Mini-enterprise development
Natural resource management

Managing farm as ecosystems
Organize for marketing

Collective action
Complex learning process
Becoming an entrepreneur

Social learning
Farmer Field School

Institutional support
Linear Configuration Research Extension

Informal Network decentralization
Universities NGOs
Civil society collaboration
IPM-FFS – Integrated Pest Management-Farmers Field SchoolPolicy
Investment in Research and Extension

Removal of subsidies, training

Environmental policy

Over the years, extension has become more participatory. This means that there is a growing recognition of the importance of the involvement of the local people as active participants in the entire process of research and extension.


application of electronic information technology
participatory extension
-participatory farmer group
-research-extension-farmer linkages
-development tools (PRA, Knowledge/Attitude/Practice survey)
4. unified extension service


The Extension Delivery System
- - the organized mechanism to bring the required knowledge, skills, and when necessary, material resources that farmer and his or her family need in their quest for an improved quality of life.

Agricultural Knowledge Information System (AKIS):

An Agricultural Information System – The whole process of generating information, transforming transferring and consolidating the same and finally fed back to ensure utilization of knowledge by agricultural producers

An Agricultural Knowledge System - A system of beliefs, cognitions, models, theories, concepts in which the experience of a person on agricultural production is accumulated.

Components of an Extension Delivery System
· Research System
· Change System
· Client System

The Research System
- composed of researchers and scientists from international and national research centers and from research institutions such as universities and research stations.
- Main function of this system is to generate technological innovations that will usher in the needed changes in line with a country’s development efforts.

The Change System
- assumes the task of disseminating information and other goods and services designed to bring about changes in client behavior. The following factors affect the functions of the change system:
Ø Doctrine – an expression of what the organization stands for, what it is striving to achieve, and what approaches or methods it intends to use to attain these objectives. (Arndt and Ruttan, 1977)
Ø Organizational Structure – the organizational structure sets the formal framework for the ways in which tasks are carried out ( Kast and Rosenzweig, 1977). Corollary to structure are the resources the organization in line with its designated functions. It is what the organization performs for and on behalf of its clientele (Axinn and Thorat, 1972).
Ø The Change Agent – success in producing the desired changes in clients depends to a great extent on the extension worker, since he deals directly with clients.

The Client System
-efforts are enhanced by an accurate and thorough assessment of the needs and resources, both material and human, of the rural social systems served; as well as a working knowledge of the principles of effective communication and adult learning.

An extension delivery system is essentially a mechanism for technological innovations requires coordination and cooperation among all components of the system.


1. Top-down Technology Transfer Model
-one-way process
-lacks farmer involvement
-applicable in a relatively uniform and predictable environment
-works well in activities focused on single commodity
-clients/receivers’ roles are fixed; little flexibility for the human element
2. Feedback Technology Transfer (FTT) Model
–feedback remains exclusively with the extension service
3. Modified FTT Model
–scientist is isolated from farmer; depends on raw/incomplete information
-fixed roles of receiver

4. Farmer-Back-To-Farmer Model
–research begins and ends with farmers
–extensionist is active participant (in community diagnosis, designing, etc.)
-farmer is involved in all stages of the communication process – basically
dynamic model

Farmer First Model – aimed at generating choices to enable farmers to
experiment, adapt and innovate; considers the primacy of farmers agenda &
knowledge; provides approaches for mainstreaming farmers in research; and a
new view on the “outsiders” roles.Beyond the “Farmer First”? – Answering to the weaknesses of the farmer first model, perspective is shifting to “beyond the farmers first” by providing analytical depth and presenting more radical programs that incorporate a socio-politically differentiated view of development where factors such as age, gender, ethnicity class and religion are related.


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