Trel B

Sunday, July 29, 2007

Units 5&6

Dear bloggers,
Please read!!! For bonus, please post a comment on the newly posted chapters so I would know that you opened the blog and read it.
1. please finalize your brochure. I need to see it again (the complete one) with the faculty/unit/deparment head signature
2. prepare your visual aids, materials and props
3. do not forget the schedule of the dry run, Aug. 5, 9:00 - 12:00 at the 3rd floor (bridge area) of the Aggie bldg. Pls. be there. It is worth 50 points. No brochure and no consultation with the dept/unit on the techno means no dry run and of course no techno demo. This means that you will lose a total of 200 points.
All the best.



Diffusion – The process of spreading technology/ information from one group/agency/person to another
Innovation – An idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an Individual
Technology - science applied to practical purposes; means and methods employed in production or manufacture of output; innovation; generated by research, inventive farmers and others; symbol of modernization
Innovation-decision process - mental process through which individual passes from first knowledge of innovation to decision to adopt or reject
Innovation-decision period - length of time required to pass through innovation-decision process. Adoption of innovation is primarily an outcome of a learning and decision-making process
Diffusion effect - the cumulatively increasing degree of influence upon an individual within a social system to adopt or reject an innovation
Over adoption - adoption of innovation when experts feel he/she should reject
Symbolic adoption - mental acceptance of innovation without necessarily “putting it into practice”
Sequential adoption - adoption of part of package of technology initially and subsequently adds components over time.
Innovation dissonance - discrepancy between individual’s attitude toward innovation and ones decision to adopt or reject an innovation
Discontinuance - decision to cease use of an innovation after previously adopting it, with two
a) Replacement discontinuance –innovation is rejected because a better
idea supersedes it
b) Disenchantment discontinuance –innovation is rejected as a result of
dissatisfaction with its performance.

The rate of awareness-knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption.
Earlier adopters have shorter innovation-decision period than later adopters.

(Five distinct stages in the adoption process and sample extension methods)

1. Awareness – different mass media could be used to provide the individual with knowledge of the innovation and create awareness (e.g. mass media, popular theater). It is at this stage that the innovation’s complexity and compatibility should be most important
2. Interest – whatever is the desired method to be used it should include information strengthening and attitude building (e.g. group meetings/discussions, radio forum, farm visit, etc.). It is at this stage that the innovation’s relative advantage and observability should be most important
3. Evaluation – the most critical stage in the adoption process because the outcome generally determines whether or not the individual proceeds to the trial and adoption stages (e.g. result demonstration, farmer exchange, etc.). It is at this stage that the innovation’s trialability should be most important.
4. Trial – methods for reinforcing the farmers’ interest should be used (individual visit, farmer exchange, demonstration, on-farm visit, etc.)
5. Adoption or Rejection – the acceptance or rejection of an idea or product (e.g. recognition program, competition, etc.)

A model of innovation-decision process:

1. Knowledge – the individual is exposed to the innovation’s existence and gains some understanding of how it functions.
2. Persuasion – the individual forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation.
3. Decision – the individual engages in activities, which lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.
4. Confirmation – the individual seeks reinforcement for the innovation-decision made, but may reverse previous decision if exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation.
§ An innovation is an idea, practice or object perceived as new by an individual, something new and novel in human knowledge and experience.
§ Technology is a means of performing or a capacity to perform a particular activity; generated buy research, inventive farmers and others; considered as a symbol of modernization.
§ Innovation-decision process is the mental process through which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation to a decision to adopt or reject and to confirmation of this decision. Innovation-decision period is the length of time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. Adoption of innovation is primarily an outcome of a learning and decision-making process.
§ Diffusion is defined as the acceptance overtime of some specific item – an idea or practice, by individuals, group or other adopting units, linked to a specific channel of communication to a social structure and to a given system of values or culture. Diffusion of innovations is a major source of social, technical and environmental change.
§ Diffusion effect is the cumulatively increasing degree of influence upon an individual within a social system to adopt or reject an innovation.
§ Over adoption is defined as the adoption of an innovation by an individual when experts feel he/she should reject. Reasons for over adoption include: insufficient knowledge about the new idea; inability to predict its consequences, a mania for the new.
§ Adoption of a new idea is the result of human interaction
§ Symbolic adoption is defined as mental acceptance of an innovation without necessarily “putting it into practice”.
§ Sequential adoption is adoption of a part of a package of technology initially and subsequently adds components over time.
§ Innovation dissonance is the discrepancy between an individual’s attitude toward an innovation and ones decision to adopt or reject an innovation. Discontinuance is a decision to cease use of an innovation after previously adopting it, with two types:
a) Replacement discontinuance – an innovation is rejected because a better idea supersedes it;
b) Disenchantment discontinuances – an innovation is rejected as a result of dissatisfaction with its performance.

§ The rate of awareness-knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption.
§ Earlier adopters have shorter innovation-decision period than later adopters.


The extension method chosen will depend on the following: goal, resources, relationship with clients, skills of the extension agent on the one hand, and the size and educational level of the target group on the other.

Types of Adopters

1. Innovators (Venturesome) – the first to adopt; they introduce the idea; they are
few; the daring and the risky but willing to accept occasional setbacks.
2. Early adopters or influentials (Respectable) – the second group to adopt and the most
important; they are quick to see the value of a new practice; these are also the opinion
leaders who are respected by their peers. The fact that they adopted the new idea makes it
acceptable for the others to do so. If the influentials are not receptive to the idea, the
adoption process will have difficulty to continue. They are more integrated in local social
3. Early majority (Deliberate) – they get their social cues from the influentials; adopt a
practice only after they are convinced of its value. They adopt new ideas just before the
average member of a social system; rarely hold leadership positions; deliberate before
completely adopting a new idea. They do not want to be the last to lay the old aside, nor
the first one to try what is new.
1. Late majority – large blocks of less wealthy; they get their cues either from the influentials or from the early majority; adopt a practice only when it is generally acceptable by the community
2. Late adopters/ Laggards (Traditional) – they have three sources for reference and the last to adopt; very slow in making a decision whether or not to adopt an innovation and are left behind in the process; reference is the past; frankly suspicious; no opinion leadership
3. Die-hards – never adopt to the new idea

The Adoption Curve


1. product – physical goods
2. process – non-tangibles; may be “system” for doing things (e.g. models, strategies, etc.)
3. service –complementary activities/ services to enhance existing programs/ policies of government
4. information – simply information or significant findings

1. generation – scientific and experimental stage
2. verification – met the following criteria:

conducted in farmers ‘ fields
tested for 2 seasons in TG trials
showed economic, technical feasibility

3. adaptation – met the following criteria:

only component of techno conducted in farmers’ field or station
tested for TG
good potential for economic feasibility/acceptance by farmers & commercial producers

4. dissemination – met the following criteria:
§ general adaptability
§ economic profitability
§ social acceptability
§ potential availability of support services

5.commercialization –successfully passed piloting stage


1. Technical feasibility/General Adaptability
2. Economic Viability
3. Social Acceptability
4. Environmental Soundness
5. Potential Availability of Support Services


Attributes of Innovation/Technology:

There are variables that also influence the attributes of people and determine the adoption or
rejection of an innovation as perceived by the receiver of the technology or innovation:

1. relative advantage – the degree to which an innovation is superior to one it is intended to replace considering the following: degree of economic profitability, initial cost, perceived risk, discomfort, time/effort/resources saved, immediacy of reward. The perceived relative advantage is positively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more advantageous it is, the greater is the rate of adoption.
2. compatibility – the extent to which an innovation fits into farmer’s views about what ought to be. What he or she does in the farm, and how he or she does it, whether or not it is consistent with existing values, experiences and needs. The perceived compatibility of a new idea is positively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more compatible the technology is, the greater is the rate of adoption.
3. complexity - some innovations are simply more complicated than others or perceived as relatively difficult to understand while some are clear to potential adopters. The perceived complexity of an innovation is negatively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more complex the innovation, the lesser is the rate of adoption.
4. trialability - quality of an innovation that allows trying or experimentation a little at a time. The perceived trialability of an innovation is positively related to its adoption, meaning, the greater would be the chance of adopting the innovation if it could be tried or experimented
5. observability – the extent to which an innovation or its results can be observed or visible to others. The perceived observability of an innovation is positively related to its adoption, meaning, the more observable it is the greater is the rate of adoption


Methods - the ways or techniques use by an extension system and influence its target groups, i.e., to bring the target groups in interaction with the context of extension

Strategy - the operational design by which a national government implements its extension policies

1. Categories of extension teaching method
a. Individual
b. Group
c. Mass

2. Factors in the choice of a method
a. Goal, learning objectives and subject matter
b. Philosophy of learning and learners
c. Competence and skills of the extension agent and on the one hand and on the size and education level of the target group on the other of extension worker
d. Learning environment
e. Resources
f. Relationship with clients

Or consider the following:

Factors to Consider in the Choice of Extension Teaching
With changing educational goals, the choice of extension teaching becomes important. How is an extension worker to decide what extension method he is to use?

The following factors help determine this:
Rural People are not all alike
People differ in nationality, culture background, schooling, occupation, religion, income, organization membership, size family, attachment to local community, in size of farms they operate and type of agriculture
These affect their attitudes, habits, and actions and responses.
People do not live alone
People satisfy desire for group association in a number of ways.
People associate with their own and just naturally from groups.
Extension can serve people along group organization lines.
Tremendous power in Group
People are likely to act when in a group.
Local community is the Main Group
Most human relations are carried on within a fairly small area, in nearby places, i.e. churches, schools, community centers etc.
A local unit of Extension organization is necessary to reach a majority of people.
Extension teaching must be based on group life below the province level, (generally at the barrio level.)
People want Security, Recognition and Response
Psychological security is needed in addition to economic security.
Extension teaching must be based on group life below the province level.
People have objectives, hopes, standards and values
Social objectives are necessary together with economic objectives.
People differ in their goals and standards, depending upon age levels, nationality, education and religious values, etc.
Goals and Standards are determined by Family and Community
Objectives of farmers and housewives are mostly geared to needs of family.
Motivation should be made on the basis of family-community circumstances.
Principles of Involvement
Effective teaching and responses are attained when people are concerned and involved in the planning process.
People like to do things for themselves, and they do not like to be over urged
People respond better when the approach is made on self-analysis basis; made to feel that the program is theirs and not that of the Extension worker.

People learn from others, but not just from anybody
The power of influence of the informal leader is grate and should be used.
Leaders must be accepted leaders with large following.
Extension workers must learn to identify these leaders.

Ways of Reaching Your Extension Audience
1. Through the Family Case Method (also known as Farm or Home Visit)
Extension information is provided on a family or individual case basis. This is the simplest way of doing extension work, for no majors’ organization is involved.
Advantage: Program can be adjusted to fit the individual case. Personal attention can be given to the individual’s educational problem.
Disadvantage: Requires too much time; no opportunities for group participation, leadership development, group learning, and group action.
2. Through the Key Family Case Method
Individual casework is purposely done with key families who have influence over others. It is simple form of teaching people.
Advantage: Serves more families with less time than family case.
Disadvantage: Requires skill and time to locate and develop key families.
3. Through the Project Leader Idea
Certain persons are selected as project leaders or teaching leaders, who serves as local point of contact. Project leader is trained in a subject, then in turn trains others.
Advantage: Helps to multiply the hands of the extension agent, and at the same time promote leadership development.
Disadvantage: Program limited to specialties in subject matter; other areas of problems of subject matter may be neglected.
4. Through the Country Planning or Advisory Council
Provides a way of finding felt needs and interest of the people, and discovering real problems. This leads towards good program development and also contributes towards leadership development
Advantage: Involvement of people. Development of leaders
Disadvantage: As the leaders are hand picked, and not democratically selected, they may not truly represent the people and council may be misused.
5. Through the Inside-Extension Club
This is common in home demonstration or home economics work where groups are organized by extension and regularly for extension lessons.
Advantage: Groups help to keep extension more clearly before the people, promote
unity of feeling and purpose, develop personality and leadership, provide social function
for members, and can multiply the hand of the agent.
Disadvantage: Members of such a group easily becomes close friends and use the club
as their social outlet exclusively. It then may become limited to a certain group of people
in the community and the educational purpose may become lost.
6. Through Direct-Purpose-Sponsor Organization
Similar to #5, except that some organizes the local club allied sponsoring organization, such as Farm Bureau. Home Bureau etc., rather than organized by extension.
Advantage: Extension has the advantage of a ready-made organization without differ
from doing organizing.
Disadvantage: The sponsoring organization may have goals or objectives, which differ
from those extensions.
7. Through Miscellaneous-Regular Local Organizations
Well suited to communities where people belong to one or more well-organized groups, such as PTA, Church and others
Advantage: Same advantages as found in #6
Disadvantage: Same advantages found as #6. In addition, many people may not belong to such organizations.
8. Through Farmer’s Commodity Organization
Common areas where agriculture us highly specialized. Provides an excellent means of reaching people in the community.
Advantage: Working with organizations, which belong to the people, and with farmers
which all have become commodity problems.
Disadvantage: Agents often have to serve as officers in the organization, and many farmers, may not belong to the organization.
9. Through a Whole Community Organization Plan
Whole Community functions as one large group representing the people. Various functional committees are set up to handle phases, including farming, home making, etc.
Advantage: Same as #5 provisions for unity in the community. Makes it easy to
reach many people and puts community influences back of recommended practices.
Develops interest and leadership and provides means of achieving farm, home and
community development programs.
Disadvantages: may not work where the community already has several strong


Individual Methods
1. Farm and Home Visits
2. Office Calls
3. Informal Contacts
4. Model Farmer
5. Individual Talk
6. Personal Letter

Group Methods
1. Farmer’s classes/Seminars (farmers attend classes or learning sessions in non-formal setting also termed as farmer field school)

Key Principles of Farmer Field School
a) What is relevant and meaningful is decided and must be discovered by learner
b) Learning is a consequence of experience
c) Cooperative approaches are enabling
d) Learning is an evolutionary process characterized by free and open
communication, confrontation, acceptance, respect and the right to make
e) Each person’s experience of reality is unique
2. Lecture/Discussions (a formal verbal presentation with specific learning objectives delivered
by a qualified speaker to a group of listeners and facilitating discussion among the listeners)
3. Role Play (farmers act out certain situations to anticipate their future actions should the
situation happens; a problem-solving technique where farmers act out the problem and the
response; could also be used to act out experiences to show what they learned)

4. Farm Demonstrations (an invaluable method in extension where farmers see new idea
works and what effect it can have on increasing their crop production).

Types of Demonstrations:
1. Method Demonstration – shows farmers how something is done step-by-step for he purpose
of teaching new techniques
2. Result Demonstration – shows local farmers why a particular new recommendation/practice
should be adopted by comparing new practice with a commonly used local practice (“seeing
is believing”).
5. Demonstration Plot: demo farm, demo field
6. Field Days (organized demons, displays, etc. of specified subjects, practices or processes
combining info, instruction and promotion; a day or days on which an
area containing successful farming or other practices is open t\for people to visits; it permits
farmers to observe personally and ask about successful farming practice; it creates a
situation in which information contacts and learning can take place.)
7.Campaign (intensive activity in coordinated way to achieve objective such s control,
sanitation, etc).
8. Tours/Excursions/Field Trips (farmers witness together an improved performance or result of
specific practice in actual setting; a group of farmers travel to another location to observe
practices, projects, demonstrations not available locally.)
9. Exhibits/Displays (the use of posters, pictures, photos, models, etc. to share new info and
create interest
10. Popular/Theater (following media: drama, singing, dancing, using local language to deal with
local problems, etc.)
11. Puppetry (use of dolls, small figures, images so as not only to entertain but also to educate)
12. Group Discussion (a group of farmers organized for the purpose of sharing information
about a specific topic, and analyzing and evaluating that information to get some general
conclusions or agreement)
13. Group Meetings (calling members of a local community together for a meeting)

Types of Meetings According to Purpose:
· Information Meetings – to communicate a specific piece of information which the extension
agent feels will benefit the community
· Planning Meetings – to review a particular problem, suggest a number of solutions and
decide upon a course of action.
· Special Interest Meetings – topics of specific interest to a particular group of people are
presented and discussed in detail at a level relevant to those who are participating
· General Community Meetings – the community is invited to attend in order to discuss issues
of general community interest. It is important to hold such general meetings occasionally so
as to avoid any community group feeling that is excluded extension activities.

Mass Media Methods
Print Media (leaflets, bulletins, newspaper, etc); Publications and circulars (journals, daily press, posters)
Indigenous Folk Media
Modern Information Technology


Individual Methods
· Good way of giving information to solve unique problem that involves major decision of
· Possible to integrate information from with information from extension agent
· Extension agent can help farmers clarify their feelings and choose between conflicting
· Extension agent can increase farmer’s trust by showing interest in farmer as person, his
or her situations and ideas

· Cost are high in terms of extension agent time and travel
· Extension agent usually reaches only a small portion of target group
· Extension can give incorrect information
· Method is based on high level of trust between farmer and extension agent

Group methods
· Coverage- possibility of greater extension coverage; more cost effective
· Learning Environment- more reflective learning environment in which farmer can listen,
discuss and decide upon involvement in extension activity
· Action- group creates supportive atmosphere, and individual farmers gain more self-
confidence by joining others to discuss new ideas and move them into concerted action

Important Issues:
· Purpose- how to develop group, to encourage members to continue to meet
and establish group on a more permanent basis.
- how to transmit new ideas, information, knowledge that will assist the farmers in their
farm activity.
· Size- ideal size for groups in extension is 20- 40; one major determinant is
geographical location.
· Membership- farmer members should share common interest and problems
· Agent’s Relationship with Group- agent should establish structure based on
social and culture context of community groups he or she serves, and ensures it will
function with minimum extension support.

Types Of Farmers’ Organization
1. community- based and resource- oriented organization (e.g. village level
coops- these organizations are generally small and more
concerned about inputs, etc.
2. commodity- based and market- oriented organization –specialize in
single commodity and opt for value- added products which
have expanded markets

Mass Media Methods
Important distinguishing characteristics of interpersonal and mass media channel of

Criteria Mass Media Interpersonal
1. Senses stimulated at Limited to one or two All senses
a time
2. Opportunity for Minimum; delayed Maximum,; immediate
3. Pace Uncontrollable Controllable
4. Message codes Highly Verbal Both verbal & non- verbal
5. Multiplicative power High Low
6. Direction of message One- way Two- way
7. Message accuracy High Low
8. Power to preserve a High Low
9. Ability to select Low High
10. Ability to overcome Low High
selectively and noise
11. Ability to meet Serves common needs Serves specialized needs
specialized needs
12. Speed to reach large Fast Slow
13. Possible effects Knowledge gain Attitude and action


  • The extension workers should have skills in doing extension works. I would like to ask, if skills are required is there any training before doing an extension work? And if there is a training, would it take months or years? Is it a requirement that an extension worker should be a college graduate?

    rachel mae rivera

    By Blogger rachel mae, at 5:38 AM  

  • This comment has been removed by the author.

    By Blogger Ernesto, at 10:38 PM  

  • This comment has been removed by the author.

    By Blogger Ernesto, at 10:45 PM  

  • One way of reaching the extension audience is through the project leader(through project leader idea). My question is that is it really necesssary that the project leader should be a resident of that certain area? or could it be not a resident of that area but he has the knowledge of what is the area he will be working?...

    Ernesto A. Chaves

    By Blogger Ernesto, at 10:49 PM  

  • Interest and understanding to the people is important to aextension worker in order to have a good relationship with the people.Maam, do you do extension works with your devcom students?

    By Blogger herman james, at 5:47 PM  

  • Extention really helps a lot

    By Blogger roy igloria, at 12:02 AM  

  • Farmers should be introduced to the "Teaching Methods" in order to give them the full knowledge on how to do agricultural extension..As what we can see in our biodiversity,our nation is very rich interms of agricultural crops and livestocks..

    From : Dan Joshua C. Cabanlet

    By Blogger Dan C, at 3:21 AM  

  • It is important and a neccessity for the farmers to be introduced to these teaching methods and techniques..Farmers are one of the considered heroes of our nation and they should be given the priviledge to be acquianted with this kind of teaching in order to help them work easier..

    the extension worker too should have enough information and knowledge about these teaching techniques and method..Communication, Evaluation and Assessment is a need to be able to check wether their teaching methods/techniques works well..

    By Blogger stephaney, at 5:57 AM  

  • It is important and a neccessity for the farmers to be introduced to these teaching methods and techniques..Farmers are one of the considered heroes of our nation and they should be given the priviledge to be acquianted with this kind of teaching in order to help them work easier..

    the extension worker too should have enough information and knowledge about these teaching techniques and method..Communication, Evaluation and Assessment is a need to be able to check wether their teaching methods/techniques works well..

    By Blogger stephaney, at 6:00 AM  

  • Reading this blog gives me the feeling of never loosing HOPE of the agricultural status in our country..AGRICULTURE is one of the most important sector in ones country so it should be given proper attention of every individual..

    Agriculture Extension workers worked to EXTEND their knowledge about a certain information about Agriculture..and this is just one way of helping our agricultural status be developed...

    knowing this and all makes me PROUD to be AGGIES!

    By Blogger mabelle, at 6:22 AM  

  • ...extension brings education and research-based information to citizens esp. to students and farmers..
    ...through our knowledge/what we have learned in this subject we can address problems and issues that help improve peoples lives..

    By Blogger ricel, at 8:50 PM  

  • it's good to indulge outselves in agri extension...hope that I can pursue that after graduation. What I want to know and acquire are the basic and necessary skills to make agri extension activities effective in reaching out other people as well as educate them. I think Ma'am Borja will include that in her lecture especially this coming manresa days.

    - rommel

    By Blogger rOmmeL, at 3:58 AM  

  • to have this kind of subject, agricultural extension, is a very big help to us students since it gives us learnings especially in the development and other aspects of agriculture as well as with other related matters... it also helps us to have good-relationship with the people around us.

    having more techniques would definitely help the extension workers inorder to attain a good production.

    By Blogger faye-'mayah', at 5:14 AM  

  • agricultural extension is a guide to us students because it helps in extending the techniques available in the production of a certain project. it supports especially the farmers to have more ideas or knowledge as well as we, students.

    By Blogger tin2, at 5:21 AM  

  • many are still unaware that "extension" exists...

    By Blogger catherine casing, at 5:56 AM  

  • farmers should be aware on how to use a technology that would help them make their work more easy and more productive..... but also the experts on this field should also learn from the farmers because they have more experience regarding with the actual work that farmers do... so in sum farmers and the experts should have a give and take relationship!!.. (carl edgardo bolipata)

    By Blogger carlson_guns, at 7:09 PM  

  • hhh

    By Blogger charlotte, at 3:04 AM  

  • unit 5 is all about adotion, methods or process of extending information, technology or innovations from one group to another person by the used of extension teaching, method and techniques(unit 6) to convince people live the new technology being introduced to them . My question focuses in unit 5 as the criteria for selecting technologies
    What if the goverment or supporting services will not continually support the new technology? What are the highlights or considerations needed to determine in order to make sure the support srveices will show a consistent support for the innovation? since the criteria for selecting technologies mention only on the Potential Availability of Support Services,..

    charlotte g pundang
    agex 51 B

    By Blogger charlotte, at 3:18 AM  

  • maam... good day!!!
    this is karl narvaez...

    i have a problem with my final exams coz i wasnt able to take it for the reason that the payment given to me for school was given just today... october 11, 2007...

    i hope i would still be able to take the examination...

    i know maam that you are very particular with the time management and discipline...

    however, i am still hoping thet you would give me the chance to take the final exam...

    i went to the office lkast time but you were not there...

    that is why i just wrote a comment on your blog...

    I hope for your very kind heart maam trel...

    thank you very much...

    With Full Sincerity,

    Karl Vincent Narvaez

    By Blogger vincent, at 12:18 AM  

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