Trel B

Monday, September 03, 2007

Ag Ext: Units 5 - 9



Diffusion – The process of spreading technology/ information from one group/agency/
person to another
Innovation – An idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an Individual
Technology - science applied to practical purposes; means and methods employed in
production or manufacture of output; innovation; generated by
research,inventive farmers and others; symbol of modernization
Innovation-decision process - mental process through which individual passes from
first knowledge of innovation to decision to adopt or reject
Innovation-decision period - length of time required to pass through innovation-
decision process. Adoption of innovation is primarily an outcome of a
learning and decision-making process
Diffusion effect - the cumulatively increasing degree of influence upon an
individual within a social system to adopt or reject an innovation
Over adoption - adoption of innovation when experts feel he/she should reject
Symbolic adoption - mental acceptance of innovation without necessarily “putting it
into practice”
Sequential adoption - adoption of part of package of technology initially and
subsequently adds components over time.
Innovation dissonance - discrepancy between individual’s attitude toward innovation
and ones decision to adopt or reject an innovation
Discontinuance - decision to cease use of an innovation after previously adopting
it, with two types:
a) Replacement discontinuance –innovation is rejected because a better
idea supersedes it
b) Disenchantment discontinuance –innovation is rejected as a result of
dissatisfaction with its performance.

The rate of awareness-knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption.
Earlier adopters have shorter innovation-decision period than later adopters.

(Five distinct stages in the adoption process and sample extension methods)

1. Awareness – different mass media could be used to provide the individual with knowledge of the innovation and create awareness (e.g. mass media, popular theater). It is at this stage that the innovation’s complexity and compatibility should be most important
2. Interest – whatever is the desired method to be used it should include information strengthening and attitude building (e.g. group meetings/discussions, radio forum, farm visit, etc.). It is at this stage that the innovation’s relative advantage and observability should be most important
3. Evaluation – the most critical stage in the adoption process because the outcome generally determines whether or not the individual proceeds to the trial and adoption stages (e.g. result demonstration, farmer exchange, etc.). It is at this stage that the innovation’s trialability should be most important.
4. Trial – methods for reinforcing the farmers’ interest should be used (individual visit, farmer exchange, demonstration, on-farm visit, etc.)
5. Adoption or Rejection – the acceptance or rejection of an idea or product (e.g. recognition program, competition, etc.)

A model of innovation-decision process:

1. Knowledge – the individual is exposed to the innovation’s existence and gains some understanding of how it functions.
2. Persuasion – the individual forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation.
3. Decision – the individual engages in activities, which lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.
4. Confirmation – the individual seeks reinforcement for the innovation-decision made, but may reverse previous decision if exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation.
§ An innovation is an idea, practice or object perceived as new by an individual, something new and novel in human knowledge and experience.
§ Technology is a means of performing or a capacity to perform a particular activity; generated buy research, inventive farmers and others; considered as a symbol of modernization.
§ Innovation-decision process is the mental process through which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation to a decision to adopt or reject and to confirmation of this decision. Innovation-decision period is the length of time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. Adoption of innovation is primarily an outcome of a learning and decision-making process.
§ Diffusion is defined as the acceptance overtime of some specific item – an idea or practice, by individuals, group or other adopting units, linked to a specific channel of communication to a social structure and to a given system of values or culture. Diffusion of innovations is a major source of social, technical and environmental change.
§ Diffusion effect is the cumulatively increasing degree of influence upon an individual within a social system to adopt or reject an innovation.
§ Over adoption is defined as the adoption of an innovation by an individual when experts feel he/she should reject. Reasons for over adoption include: insufficient knowledge about the new idea; inability to predict its consequences, a mania for the new.
§ Adoption of a new idea is the result of human interaction
§ Symbolic adoption is defined as mental acceptance of an innovation without necessarily “putting it into practice”.
§ Sequential adoption is adoption of a part of a package of technology initially and subsequently adds components over time.
§ Innovation dissonance is the discrepancy between an individual’s attitude toward an innovation and ones decision to adopt or reject an innovation. Discontinuance is a decision to cease use of an innovation after previously adopting it, with two types:
a) Replacement discontinuance – an innovation is rejected because a better idea supersedes it;
b) Disenchantment discontinuances – an innovation is rejected as a result of dissatisfaction with its performance.

§ The rate of awareness-knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption.
§ Earlier adopters have shorter innovation-decision period than later adopters.


The extension method chosen will depend on the following: goal, resources, relationship with clients, skills of the extension agent on the one hand, and the size and educational level of the target group on the other.

Types of Adopters

1. Innovators (Venturesome) – the first to adopt; they introduce the idea; they are
few; the daring and the risky but willing to accept occasional setbacks.
2. Early adopters or influentials (Respectable) – the second group to adopt and
the most important; they are quick to see the value of a new practice; these are
also the opinion leaders who are respected by their peers. The fact that they
adopted the new idea makes it acceptable for the others to do so. If the
influentials are not receptive to the idea, the adoption process will have
difficulty to continue. They are more integrated in local social system.
3. Early majority (Deliberate) – they get their social cues from the influentials;
adopt a practice only after they are convinced of its value. They adopt new
ideas just before the average member of a social system; rarely hold leadership
positions; deliberate before completely adopting a new idea. They do not want
to be the last to lay the old aside, nor the first one to try what is new.
4. Late majority – large blocks of less wealthy; they get their cues either from
the influentials or from the early majority; adopt a practice only when it is
generally acceptable by the community
5. Late adopters/ Laggards (Traditional) – they have three sources for reference
and the last to adopt; very slow in making a decision whether or not to adopt an
innovation and are left behind in the process; reference is the past; frankly
suspicious; no opinion leadership
6. Die-hards – never adopt to the new idea

The Adoption Curve (bell-shaped - follow the order as numbered above with the innovators at the bottom of the "bell" on theleft side and the die-hards on the other end)


1. product – physical goods
2. process – non-tangibles; may be “system” for doing things (e.g. models, strategies, etc.)
3. service –complementary activities/ services to enhance existing programs/ policies of government
4. information – simply information or significant findings

1. generation – scientific and experimental stage
2. verification – met the following criteria:

conducted in farmers ‘ fields
tested for 2 seasons in TG trials
showed economic, technical feasibility

3. adaptation – met the following criteria:

only component of techno conducted in farmers’ field or station
tested for TG
good potential for economic feasibility/acceptance by farmers & commercial producers

4. dissemination – met the following criteria:
§ general adaptability
§ economic profitability
§ social acceptability
§ potential availability of support services

5.commercialization –successfully passed piloting stage


1. Technical feasibility/General Adaptability
2. Economic Viability
3. Social Acceptability
4. Environmental Soundness
5. Potential Availability of Support Services


Attributes of Innovation/Technology:

There are variables that also influence the attributes of people and determine the adoption or
rejection of an innovation as perceived by the receiver of the technology or innovation:

1. relative advantage – the degree to which an innovation is superior to one it is intended to replace considering the following: degree of economic profitability, initial cost, perceived risk, discomfort, time/effort/resources saved, immediacy of reward. The perceived relative advantage is positively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more advantageous it is, the greater is the rate of adoption.
2. compatibility – the extent to which an innovation fits into farmer’s views about what ought to be. What he or she does in the farm, and how he or she does it, whether or not it is consistent with existing values, experiences and needs. The perceived compatibility of a new idea is positively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more compatible the technology is, the greater is the rate of adoption.
3. complexity - some innovations are simply more complicated than others or perceived as relatively difficult to understand while some are clear to potential adopters. The perceived complexity of an innovation is negatively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more complex the innovation, the lesser is the rate of adoption.
4. trialability - quality of an innovation that allows trying or experimentation a little at a time. The perceived trialability of an innovation is positively related to its adoption, meaning, the greater would be the chance of adopting the innovation if it could be tried or experimented
5. observability – the extent to which an innovation or its results can be observed or visible to others. The perceived observability of an innovation is positively related to its adoption, meaning, the more observable it is the greater is the rate of adoption


Methods - the ways or techniques use by an extension system and influence its target groups, i.e., to bring the target groups in interaction with the context of extension

Strategy - the operational design by which a national government implements its extension policies

1. Categories of extension teaching method
a. Individual
b. Group
c. Mass

2. Factors in the choice of a method
a. Goal, learning objectives and subject matter
b. Philosophy of learning and learners
c. Competence and skills of the extension agent and on the one hand and on the size and education level of the target group on the other of extension worker
d. Learning environment
e. Resources
f. Relationship with clients

Or consider the following:

Factors to Consider in the Choice of Extension Teaching
With changing educational goals, the choice of extension teaching becomes important. How is an extension worker to decide what extension method he is to use?

The following factors help determine this:
-Rural People are not all alike
-People differ in nationality, culture background, schooling, occupation, religion, income, organization membership, size family, attachment to local community, in size of farms they operate and type of agriculture
These affect their attitudes, habits, and actions and responses.
-People do not live alone
-People satisfy desire for group association in a number of ways.
-People associate with their own and just naturally from groups.
-Extension can serve people along group organization lines.
-Tremendous power in Group
-People are likely to act when in a group.
-Local community is the Main Group
-Most human relations are carried on within a fairly small area, in nearby places, i.e. churches, schools, community centers etc.
-A local unit of Extension organization is necessary to reach a majority of people.
-Extension teaching must be based on group life below the province level, (generally at the barrio level.)
-People want Security, Recognition and Response
-Psychological security is needed in addition to economic security.
-Extension teaching must be based on group life below the province level.
-People have objectives, hopes, standards and values
-Social objectives are necessary together with economic objectives.
-People differ in their goals and standards, depending upon age levels, nationality, education and religious values, etc.
-Goals and Standards are determined by Family and Community
-Objectives of farmers and housewives are mostly geared to needs of family.
-Motivation should be made on the basis of family-community circumstances.

Principles of Involvement
-Effective teaching and responses are attained when people are concerned and involved in the planning process.
-People like to do things for themselves, and they do not like to be over urged
-People respond better when the approach is made on self-analysis basis; made to feel that the program is theirs and not that of the Extension worker.
-People learn from others, but not just from anybody
-The power of influence of the informal leader is grate and should be used.
-Leaders must be accepted leaders with large following.
-Extension workers must learn to identify these leaders.

Ways of Reaching Your Extension Audience
1. Through the Family Case Method (also known as Farm or Home Visit)
Extension information is provided on a family or individual case basis. This is the simplest way of doing extension work, for no majors’ organization is involved.
Advantage: Program can be adjusted to fit the individual case. Personal attention can be given to the individual’s educational problem.
Disadvantage: Requires too much time; no opportunities for group participation, leadership development, group learning, and group action.
2. Through the Key Family Case Method
Individual casework is purposely done with key families who have influence over others. It is simple form of teaching people.
Advantage: Serves more families with less time than family case.
Disadvantage: Requires skill and time to locate and develop key families.
3. Through the Project Leader Idea
Certain persons are selected as project leaders or teaching leaders, who serves as local point of contact. Project leader is trained in a subject, then in turn trains others.
Advantage: Helps to multiply the hands of the extension agent, and at the same time promote leadership development.
Disadvantage: Program limited to specialties in subject matter; other areas of problems of subject matter may be neglected.
4. Through the Country Planning or Advisory Council
Provides a way of finding felt needs and interest of the people, and discovering real problems. This leads towards good program development and also contributes towards leadership development
Advantage: Involvement of people. Development of leaders
Disadvantage: As the leaders are hand picked, and not democratically selected, they may not truly represent the people and council may be misused.
5. Through the Inside-Extension Club
This is common in home demonstration or home economics work where groups are organized by extension and regularly for extension lessons.
Advantage: Groups help to keep extension more clearly before the people, promote
unity of feeling and purpose, develop personality and leadership, provide social function
for members, and can multiply the hand of the agent.
Disadvantage: Members of such a group easily becomes close friends and use the club
as their social outlet exclusively. It then may become limited to a certain group of people
in the community and the educational purpose may become lost.
6. Through Direct-Purpose-Sponsor Organization
Similar to #5, except that some organizes the local club allied sponsoring organization, such as Farm Bureau. Home Bureau etc., rather than organized by extension.
Advantage: Extension has the advantage of a ready-made organization without differ
from doing organizing.
Disadvantage: The sponsoring organization may have goals or objectives, which differ
from those extensions.
7. Through Miscellaneous-Regular Local Organizations
Well suited to communities where people belong to one or more well-organized groups, such as PTA, Church and others
Advantage: Same advantages as found in #6
Disadvantage: Same advantages found as #6. In addition, many people may not belong to such organizations.
8. Through Farmer’s Commodity Organization
Common areas where agriculture us highly specialized. Provides an excellent means of reaching people in the community.
Advantage: Working with organizations, which belong to the people, and with farmers
which all have become commodity problems.
Disadvantage: Agents often have to serve as officers in the organization, and many farmers, may not belong to the organization.
9. Through a Whole Community Organization Plan
Whole Community functions as one large group representing the people. Various functional committees are set up to handle phases, including farming, home making, etc.
Advantage: Same as #5 provisions for unity in the community. Makes it easy to
reach many people and puts community influences back of recommended practices.
Develops interest and leadership and provides means of achieving farm, home and
community development programs.
Disadvantages: may not work where the community already has several strong


Individual Methods
1. Farm and Home Visits
2. Office Calls
3. Informal Contacts
4. Model Farmer
5. Individual Talk
6. Personal Letter

Group Methods
1. Farmer’s classes/Seminars (farmers attend classes or learning sessions in non-formal setting also termed as farmer field school)

Key Principles of Farmer Field School
a) What is relevant and meaningful is decided and must be discovered by learner
b) Learning is a consequence of experience
c) Cooperative approaches are enabling
d) Learning is an evolutionary process characterized by free and open
communication, confrontation, acceptance, respect and the right to make
e) Each person’s experience of reality is unique
2. Lecture/Discussions (a formal verbal presentation with specific learning objectives delivered
by a qualified speaker to a group of listeners and facilitating discussion among the listeners)
3. Role Play (farmers act out certain situations to anticipate their future actions should the
situation happens; a problem-solving technique where farmers act out the problem and the
response; could also be used to act out experiences to show what they learned)

4. Farm Demonstrations (an invaluable method in extension where farmers see new idea
works and what effect it can have on increasing their crop production).

Types of Demonstrations:
1. Method Demonstration – shows farmers how something is done step-by-step for he purpose
of teaching new techniques
2. Result Demonstration – shows local farmers why a particular new recommendation/practice
should be adopted by comparing new practice with a commonly used local practice (“seeing
is believing”).
5. Demonstration Plot: demo farm, demo field
6. Field Days (organized demons, displays, etc. of specified subjects, practices or processes
combining info, instruction and promotion; a day or days on which an
area containing successful farming or other practices is open t\for people to visits; it permits
farmers to observe personally and ask about successful farming practice; it creates a
situation in which information contacts and learning can take place.)
7.Campaign (intensive activity in coordinated way to achieve objective such s control,
sanitation, etc).
8. Tours/Excursions/Field Trips (farmers witness together an improved performance or result of
specific practice in actual setting; a group of farmers travel to another location to observe
practices, projects, demonstrations not available locally.)
9. Exhibits/Displays (the use of posters, pictures, photos, models, etc. to share new info and
create interest
10. Popular/Theater (following media: drama, singing, dancing, using local language to deal with
local problems, etc.)
11. Puppetry (use of dolls, small figures, images so as not only to entertain but also to educate)
12. Group Discussion (a group of farmers organized for the purpose of sharing information
about a specific topic, and analyzing and evaluating that information to get some general
conclusions or agreement)
13. Group Meetings (calling members of a local community together for a meeting)

Types of Meetings According to Purpose:
· Information Meetings – to communicate a specific piece of information which the extension
agent feels will benefit the community
· Planning Meetings – to review a particular problem, suggest a number of solutions and
decide upon a course of action.
· Special Interest Meetings – topics of specific interest to a particular group of people are
presented and discussed in detail at a level relevant to those who are participating
· General Community Meetings – the community is invited to attend in order to discuss issues
of general community interest. It is important to hold such general meetings occasionally so
as to avoid any community group feeling that is excluded extension activities.

Mass Media Methods
Print Media (leaflets, bulletins, newspaper, etc); Publications and circulars (journals, daily press, posters)
Indigenous Folk Media
Modern Information Technology


Individual Methods
· Good way of giving information to solve unique problem that involves major decision of
· Possible to integrate information from with information from extension agent
· Extension agent can help farmers clarify their feelings and choose between conflicting
· Extension agent can increase farmer’s trust by showing interest in farmer as person, his
or her situations and ideas

· Cost are high in terms of extension agent time and travel
· Extension agent usually reaches only a small portion of target group
· Extension can give incorrect information
· Method is based on high level of trust between farmer and extension agent

Group methods
· Coverage- possibility of greater extension coverage; more cost effective
· Learning Environment- more reflective learning environment in which farmer can listen,
discuss and decide upon involvement in extension activity
· Action- group creates supportive atmosphere, and individual farmers gain more self-
confidence by joining others to discuss new ideas and move them into concerted action

Important Issues:
· Purpose- how to develop group, to encourage members to continue to meet
and establish group on a more permanent basis.
- how to transmit new ideas, information, knowledge that will assist the farmers in their
farm activity.
· Size- ideal size for groups in extension is 20- 40; one major determinant is
geographical location.
· Membership- farmer members should share common interest and problems
· Agent’s Relationship with Group- agent should establish structure based on
social and culture context of community groups he or she serves, and ensures it will
function with minimum extension support.

Types Of Farmers’ Organization
1. community- based and resource- oriented organization (e.g. village level
coops- these organizations are generally small and more
concerned about inputs, etc.
2. commodity- based and market- oriented organization –specialize in
single commodity and opt for value- added products which
have expanded markets

Mass Media Methods
Important distinguishing characteristics of interpersonal and mass media channel of

Criteria Mass Media Interpersonal
1. Senses stimulated at Limited to one or two All senses
a time
2. Opportunity for Minimum; delayed Maximum,; immediate
3. Pace Uncontrollable Controllable
4. Message codes Highly Verbal Both verbal & non- verbal
5. Multiplicative power High Low
6. Direction of message One- way Two- way
7. Message accuracy High Low
8. Power to preserve a High Low
9. Ability to select Low High
10. Ability to overcome Low High
selectively and noise
11. Ability to meet Serves common needs Serves specialized needs
specialized needs
12. Speed to reach large Fast Slow
13. Possible effects Knowledge gain Attitude and action change


- the style of action within the extension system which embodies the philosophy of that system
· sets the pace for all the activities of the system
· works like a doctrine for the system- informs, stimulates and guides the system
-an organized and coherent mix of the various methods and strategies whatever is applicable
for an extension work in the rural areas to become effective (strategies are approaches
and methods developed to reach a goal)

1. The General Agricultural Approach
2. The Commodity Approach
3. The Agricultural Extension Participatory Approach
4. The Project Approach
5. The Farming Systems Development Approach
6. The Cost Sharing Approach
7. The Educational Institution Approach
General Agricultural Extension Approach
· General Nature: transfer of technology
· Basic Assumption: technology and information are available but are not being used by farmers. If these could be communicated to farmers, farm practices would be improved
· Purpose: to help farmers increase their production.
· Program Planning: controlled by government and changes in priority, from time to time, are made on a national basis, with some freedom for local adaptation.
· Implementation: carried out by a large field staff assigned throughout the country. Demonstration plot are a major technique.
· Resources Required: large number of field personnel.
· Measure of Success: increase in national production of the commodities being emphasized in the national program
· Advantages: interprets national government policies and procedures to local people; relatively easy to control by the national government; relatively rapid communication from the ministry level to rural people.
· Disadvantages: lacks two-way flow of communication; falls to adjust extension messages to different localities; field staff not accountable to rural people; expensive inefficient

Commodities Specialized Approach
· General Nature: highly specialized; focuses on one export crop or one aspect for farming.
· Basic Assumption: the way to increase productivity and production of a particular commodity is to really to concentrate on that one; grouping extension with such other functions as research, input supply, output marketing, credit, and sometimes price control, will make the whole system productive.
· Purpose: to increase production of particular commodity; sometimes it is to increase utilization of a particular agricultural input.
· Program Planning: controlled by the commodity organization.
· Implementation: carried out by a large field staff assigned throughout the country; demonstration plots are a major technique.
· Resources Required: provided by the commodity organization.
· Measure of Success: total productivity of a particular crop.
· Advantages: technology tends to “fit” the production problems and so messages of extension officers sent to growers tend to be appropriate; because of coordination with research and marketing people, messages tend to be delivered in a timely manner to producers; focus on a narrow range of technical concerns; higher salary incentives; closer management and supervision; fewer farmers per extension worker; easier to monitor and evaluate; relatively more cost- effective.
· Disadvantages: interests of farmers may have less priority than those of the commodity organization; does not provide advisory service to other aspects of farming; problems of the commodity organization; promoting “its commodity” even in situations where it is no longer in the national interest to increasing production of that commodity.

Agricultural Extension Participatory Approach
· General Nature: concerned with a broad range of agricultural subject, shifting its local focus from time to time as village problems change or change or as needs arise.
· Basic Assumption: farming people have much wisdom regarding production of food
from their land to their levels of living and productivity could be improved by learning
more from what is outside; that there is an IKS, different from the scientific knowledge
system, but there is much to be gained from the interaction of the two; participation
of the farmers, as well as research and related services; that there is a reinforcing effect
in group learning and group action; that extension efficiency is gained by focusing on
important points based on expressed needs of farmers.
· Purpose: to increase production of farming people; increase consumption and enhance the quality of life of rural people.
· Program Planning: controlled locally, often by farmers’ associations.
· Implementation: features many meetings and discussions of farmers’ problems and exploring situations with extension officers.
· Resources Required: extension workers who are not technically trained but are also not formal educators, animators, and catalysts.

Project Approach
· Basic Assumption: better results can be achieved in a particular location, during a specified time period, with large infusions of outside resources; high impact activities, carried on under artificial circumstances; will have some continuity after outside financial support is no longer available.
· Purpose: to demonstrate, within the project area, what can be accomplished on a relatively short period of time; to test the variety of alternative extension methods.
· Program Planning: control by outside the village, with central government, the “donor” agency or some combination.
· Implementation: includes a project management staff, project allowance for field staff, better transportation, facilities, equipment, and better housing than regular government program.
· Advantages: focused, enables evaluation of effectiveness, and sometimes “quick results” for foreign donor; novel techniques & methods can be treated & experimented within the limits of the projects.
· Disadvantages: usually too short time period; money provided tends to be more than what is appropriate; flow of “ good ideas” in the project to the areas outside the project; double standards; when money ends, production extension programs most after ends also.

Farming System Development Approach
· Basic Assumption- technology, which fits the needs of farmers particularly small farmers, is not available and needs to generated locally.
· Purpose: to provide extension persons, and through their farm people, with research results tailored to meet the needs and interest of the local farming system conditions.
· Program Planning: evolve slowly during the process, and may be different for each ages, climatic farm eco-system type since the program must take into account a holistic approach to the plants, animals, and people in ache particular location; control of program shared jointly by local men and women, agricultural extension officer, and agricultural researchers.
· Implementation: through partnership of research and extension personnel and with local people, taking a systems approach to the farm; sometimes involves scientific disciplines, however, requires that research personnel go to the farm, listen to farmers, and in collaboration with them, and the extension personnel, understand the from as a system.
· Measure of Success: extend to which farm people adopt the technologies developed in the program and continue to use them overtime.
· Advantages: some measure of local control of program planning increases relevance of program content and methods to needs and interests of clientele; higher adoption rates; effective communication between local people and extension personnel; low cost to central government and local people.

Cost Sharing Approach
· Basic assumption: any NFE program is more likely to achieve its goals if those who benefit from it share some part of the cost; program would be more likely fit to local situation; personal would be more likely serve interest of client if cost are shared between “outside” sponsors and “inside” target group; commitment of learners to participate if they pay some part of the cost.
· Purpose: to help farm people learn those things they need to know for self-improvement and increased productivity; to funding of agricultural extension affordable and sustainable both at central and local levels.
· Program Planning: shared by various levels paying the cost but must be responsive to local interest in order to maintain “cooperative” financial arrangements; local people tend to have strong voice in program planning.
· Measure of Success: farm people’s willingness and ability to provide some share of the cost, individually or through their local government units
· Advantages: some measure of local control of program planning increases relevance of program content and methods to needs and interest of clientele; higher adoption rates; effective communication between local people and extension personnel; lower cost to central government and local people.
· Disadvantages: more difficult for central government to control either program or personnel

Training and Visit Approach
· General Nature: highly disciplined and patterned; with fixed schedule for training of village extension workers, SMS, and scheduled visits by extension workers to farmers.
· Basic Assumption: extension personnel are poorly trained; not up-to-date and tend not to visit farmers, but stay in their offices; management and supervision is not adequate; two-way communication between research and extension units and between extension staff and farmers can be achieved through this discipline.
· Purpose: to include farmers to increase production of specified crops decided upon professionals and program is delivered “down” to farmers; program planning follows cropping pattern of priority crops.
· Implementation: relies basically on visits by extension workers to small groups of farmers or to individual “contact” farmers; fortnightly training and dependent on central resources; more adequate transportation capability for field personnel.
· Measure of Success: increase in yield, and total production of the crops being emphasized.
· Advantages: pressure on governments to recognize a large number of small agricultural extension units into one integrated service brings discipline to the system, VEWs become more up-to-date with information; closer technical supervision.
· Disadvantages: high long-term costs to governments due to expanding size of VEWs; lack of actual two-way communication; technology that is relevant to the farmers is not integrated; lack of flexibility to change programs as needs and interests of farmers change; field staff tires to vigorous, patterned activities without appropriate rewards.

Or Consider the following Re-classification of Approaches:


An extension approach is an organized and coherent combination of strategies and methods, designed to make rural extension effective in a certain area.
Strategies are approaches and methods chosen or developed to reach a particular set of goal; used to define the operational design by means of which a national government, or other sponsoring organizations, implements its policies.

Mass Approach
The Farming System Development Approach
§ Assumes that technology which fits the needs of farmers, particularly small farmers, is not available and needs to be generated locally
§ Aims to provide extension personnel (and through them farm people), with research results tailored to meet the needs and interests of local farming system conditions.
§ the control of the program is shared jointly by local farm people, extension officers and researchers
§ In each particular location, the program actually ‘fits’ the needs and interests of its clientele and they are more likely to participate over time, adopt recommended practices and support continuity of the total agricultural extension program.
§ Implementation is thru a partnership between research and extension personnel
§ The cost can be quite high
§ The approach brings results slowly
§ Reporting and administrative control is difficult

Commodity Approach
§ An organized and coherent combination of extension strategies and methods, which facilitate the production of one specific crop (commodity).
§ Extension content is limited to technical and administrative or commercial aspects of the production of a commodity
§ Concentrates on one cash crop and provides all elements of the mix necessary for growing it, including marketing and price controls
§ Each individual farmers has direct contact with the board/society
§ Technology tends to fit the production problems and the messages which extension officers send growers tend to be appropriate
§ Extension activities tend to be coordinated; messages delivered is timely; focus on a narrow range of technical concerns; easier to monitor and evaluate; more cost effective
§ Interest of farmers may have less priority over those of the production organization
§ Does not provide advisory service to other aspects of farming if farmers like to produce more than one commodity
§ It may contradict with national production program

Area Approach
Scheme Approach
§ An organized and coherent combination of extension strategies and methods, which aims at the reinforcement of the rules and regulations of a scheme.
§ The management control most of the production factors
§ Decisions about innovation are production factors
§ Decisions about innovation re all taken by one management
§ Allow results in a short time and can be expanded to include large numbers of people
§ Success depends on the quality of management
§ Often used not for rural welfare but for extraction of wealth out of rural areas
§ Capital costs per unit area or household are always high and schemes are always administration – and management intensive
§ Unless it is designed and controlled very much according to rules which fit the farmer’s needs, and unless the scheme yields results which farmers perceive as beneficial, scheme approach hardly works

Team Approach
The Target Category Approach
§ An extension approach which provides carefully selected information, and other support for the specific needs of deliberately chosen categories in the population
§ Target categories are formed on the basis of similarities of their needs and /or opportunities
§ Selected delivery of opportunities is successful to the extent that benefit only members of target categories

The Functional Group Approach
§ Is an extension approach where one of the prime targets is to form groups of persons who join their efforts in order to mobilize the necessary resources to be able to achieve as shared goal.
§ The change in behavior of participants is carried out by five different elements: mobilization; organization; training; technical and resource support; and special efforts to consolidate and replicate the results.
§ Installing new opportunities for the rural; requires understanding of their own situation; its potential for change; and their own possible role in it
§ Making use of opportunities usually requires that the rural poor decide on some form of organization to allow collective decision making, collective responsibility, resource pooling and other collaborative arrangements, as well as a participative structure and a single voice in dealing with outside forces
§ Developing and utilizing opportunities usually requires new local, technical and organizational roles
§ Developing and utilizing opportunities and local projects requires technical and local resource support if tangible results are to materialize
§ Crucial role in the system includes starting up functional groups and agency support, maintaining the linkages between them, mobilizing, organizing and training new functional groups, initiating local development projects; providing starter loans, lobbying for support from agencies, so forth

The Farmers Organization Approach
§ Independent, self-management and in most cases permanent organizations are formed with the objective to propagate some kind of social or economic development for the embers.
§ Requires a relatively high degree of mobilization of the farmers as well as the capacity to manage their own affairs on a communal basis
§ Requires government policy that facilitates or tolerates the emergence of a farmers’ lobby and is willing to look upon the organizations as partners in development.

Individual Approach
The Project Approach
§ Assumes that the large government bureaucracy is not likely to have a significant impact upon either agricultural production or rural people, and that better results can be achieved in a particular location, during a specified time period with large infusions of outside resources.
§ Assumes that high impact activities, carried under artificial circumstances, will have continuity after outside financial support diminishes
§ Aims to demonstrate, within the project area, what can be accomplished in a relatively short period of time
§ Measure of success is usually short run change at the project site
§ Time period is usually too short and amount of money provided tends to more than adequate
§ Flow of ‘good ideas’ from the project area to other places
§ Tendency that when money ends, so does the project

Integrated Approach
General Agricultural Approach
§ Dominant approach for the last 80 years
§ It assumes that technology and information are available and not being used by farmers; if communicated to farmers, farm practices would be improved
§ Its purpose is to help farmers increase their production
§ Success is measured by the increases in national production of the commodities being emphasized in the national program
§ Provides for relatively rapid communication for the department level to rural people
§ Typically lacks two-way of information; communication about farmers problem, needs and interest tend not to follow-up through the extension channel used
§ Reflecting national goals and targets fails to adjust the messages for each different locality
§ Field staff are not accountable to the rural people of the area in which they are working
§ Expensive and inefficient

The Technical Change Approach
§ An extension approach which aims at the maximum adoption of a number of innovations
§ Most common approach followed in agricultural development
§ Technical information is diffused indiscriminately (but not necessarily unstrategically) within the rural society
§ Farmers are free whether or not to receive the information and to try, adopt or reject the innovation
§ Innovations are introduced to a small number of “selected farmers” in the hope that autonomous diffusion processes will multiply the impact of the intervention
§ Technology development is left to research institutions which may not take into account farming systems and farmers ‘ production objectives
§ Utilization of technology is hindered because information, goods and services are not offered in the mix necessary from the producers’ point of view
§ Problem on the heterogeneity of rural populations in terms access to resources and their farming systems.
§ Extension has only direct contact with minority of the farmers
§ Seems usually unsuitable for poverty alleviation

Training and Visit Approach
§ Spread rapidly since mid 70s
§ Assumes that extension field personnel are poorly trained, not up-to-date and tend not to visit farms
§ There is a fix schedule of training of village extension workers and farmers
§ Decisions of what to be taught, when it be taught tend to be made by the professionals and the program is delivered down to the farmers
§ Implementation relies basically on visits by village level extension workers to small groups of farmers or to individual contact farmers
§ Funds come from large international loans
§ Teaches farmers how to make the best of available resources
§ Brings discipline and devotion to their work for the extension officers
§ High long-term costs to government in expanding size of field extension staff
§ Lack of two-way communication between research and extension staff
§ Lack of flexibility to change program as needs and interest of farming people change

Participatory Models and Approaches
The Agricultural Extension Participatory Approach
§ Includes participation by personnel of agricultural research and service organizations, as well as farmers
§ Concerned with broad range of agricultural subjects, shifting local focus as village problems change or as new needs arise
§ Assumes that farming people have much wisdom regarding production of food from their land, but levels of living and productivity could be improved by learning
§ Aims to increase production of farming people and increase the consumption and enhance quality of knife of rural people
§ Participation in program [planning increases exposure to different sources of information; awareness of new information and practices; confidence on new practices and in oneself; initiative and adoption rate and productivity.
§ Extension workers not only agricultural educator, but also animators and catalysts to stimulate farmers to organize group effort
§ Success is measured on the continuity of local extension organizations, benefits to the community, extent to which agricultural research personnel and others actually participate in both planning and implementation
§ Cost less because local associations facilitate communication making whole system more efficient
§ Caters to both human and technical side of extension
§ Lacks central control of program which may lead to competition and confusion
§ Difficult to manage central reporting and accounting since program shift as local conditions change
§ The issue whether participation of local people actually influences management decisions

Rapid Community Appraisal (RCA)
§ Data collection technique that can be used both for rural and urban situations with multi-perspective analysis
§ Short adoption conducted by multidisciplinary team interacting with the community, obtain usually non-empirical data to guide further study and plan intervention programs to other possible courses of action
§ Rapid and effective way of obtaining behavioral, economic and sociological in formation bout a particular topic or situation; able to deal with complex systems and can provide insight into situations from multiple perspectives
§ So versatile and inventive, open to superficial and producing error in the data, not suitable in collecting precise or statistically significant information
§ Generates large amount of data which needs comprehensive and thorough analysis and synthesis

General Principles Regarding Approaches to Agricultural Extension
1. Success of an extension program is directly related to the extent to which the approach fits program goals
2. Participation of rural people tends to facilitate learning and adoption of improved farm
3. Effectiveness of an extension program vary directly with the extent of discipline and seriousness among personnel
4. Effectiveness depends on the extent to which goals of the program are clearly understood by responsible personnel
5. Sustainability depends in the extent to which benefits to both sponsors and clients are greater than costs
6. Information from both indigenous knowledge and international scientific knowledge systems tend to be more effective than those which utilize technical information only
7. Particular approaches will be most successful when they fit national aspirations
8. Cultural factors need to be considered in planning any extension program
9. Approaches used should be gender sensitive
10. More participatory approaches tend to fit best in national systems where public administration is more decentralized.
11. Approach should encourage two-way communication linkages between and among sponsors and clients
12. An approach is effective if it could develop sustained, vigorous, dynamic and creative leadership


An objective is a guide that serves as the basis for undertaking various extension or program activities. Normally, objectives are stated as general or specific.

The general objectives are more definite social statements expressing the general purpose of an organization. The specific objectives are also known as operational objectives with the following characteristics: simple or specific (S), measurable (M), attainable (A), realistic (R), time-bound (T).

Objectives, specially working objectives, should be expressed in behavioral terms and are classified into domains. The three domains of behavioral objectives are cognitive, affective and psychomotor.


A relatively permanent change in behavior (in terms of knowledge, values, skill, or attitudes) that as a result of practice and experience.

Who is an Adult?
He or she is a self-directed individual.

It is a student-centered and problem oriented; based upon the insight that the deepest need of an adult is to be treated as an adult, a self-directing person, to be treated with respect.

Characteristics of the Adult Learner
· Free to avoid, engage in, or withdraw from an educational experience
· Regards the hours that he or she gives to learning as precious and expects them to be used to some constructive purpose
· Welcomes and enrolls in adult educational opportunities
· One with a lot of experiences
· Spurns information and ideas that are opposed to his or her cherished beliefs (beliefs are influenced by culture)
· Usually selects his or her own area of educational interest
· Holds an image of himself or herself that the teacher must respect; may desperately want to learn but resent being treated as a pupil
· Authority of teacher for adults who enjoy higher social and economic status than their teacher
· No age gap, and the student’s experience may often exceed that of a teacher
· Likely to display cooperative spirit in contrast to competitiveness of the young; from their own experiences

Motivation to Study
-to participate in an organized learning activity if he or she thinks it will solve personal, social, or vocational problems or make him or happy

Categories of Adults
· Goal-oriented – has one or more specific objectives he or she wants to attain through adult education program
· Learning-oriented – motivated by the desire to know
· Activity-oriented – attracted to adult education programs to meet people to socialize, or to escape from less desirable activities

Reasons or motivation to participate:
· Social relationships, external expectations, social welfare, professional advancement, escape or stimulation, and cognitive interest
· Vocational, personal development, and social relationships
· To become better informed, to prepare a new job, to spend leisure time in an enjoyable and rewarding way, to meet new and interesting people, to increase general knowledge, to escape from routine, to improve personality, and to improve interpersonal relations
· Goals associated by the family situation

Kinds/ Classification of Learning
1. Cognitive – concerns the various aspects of knowing such as perception memory, imagination, judgment, and problem solving
2. Affective – concerned with change in beliefs, attitudes and feeling.
3. Motor – concerned with physical activity

Culture and Learning
Every society has its own culture, which is carried by individuals and transmitted through interactions. Culture is totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and practices of any one society; the product of social, economic, and political organizations of a given society; culture of a society changes at varying paces.

Methods of Influencing Human Behavior
· Compulsion or Coercion – power is exerted by an authority, forcing somebody to do something
· Exchange – goods or services are exchanged between two individuals or groups.
· Advice – it is given on which solution to choose for a certain problem.
· Openly Influencing a Farmer’s Knowledge and Attitudes
· Manipulation
· Providing Means
· Providing Service
· Changing the Socio-economic Structure

Knowledge and Learning

· Must take into account the learner’s culture
- the universe as the learner defines it: beliefs, values, standard of acceptable and non- acceptable practices, understanding of way things work
· Motivating force of needs

Strategies to Influence Farmers’ Behavior

o Development & influence strategy
- ‘Doing to’ or working to get the farmer in a situation considered desirable by the extension agent or organization
o Social marketing strategy
- ‘Doing for’ or working for farmers’ interests
o Problem-solving strategy
- ‘Doing with’ or working jointly with farmers to solve their problems

Considerations in the choice of a strategy
o the problem area
o trust in farmers’ capabilities
o task of extension organization


A program plan is description of the general situation, resources, needs and problems of the people in the area. It also includes the following: a statement of objectives, and goals, the strategies for accomplishing the stated objectives and goals, the schedule of activities (when and how they will be undertaken and by whom), estimate of the budgetary requirement for implementing the various accomplishments or changes made.

It is developed by the community with the help and guidance of the change agent; basis for undertaking extension or development activities in the area.

What is a good, sound program plan?

1. based on an analysis of the situation
- taking into account available resources (both material and human) in the area through any or a variety of methods such as observation, survey, interviews, census, transect maps, walk-throughs, etc.

2. selects programs based on needs
- since not all problems can be responded to an attacked at once, choice of focus and priority is made from those in which the community has the capability of doing through the resources that are available locally

3. determines objectives and solutions that offer satisfaction
- objectives and solution must be attainable and within reach by the community

4. has permanence with flexibility
- must be forward-looking and permanent (anticipating years of related and well-organized efforts)

5. has balance with emphasis
- must be comprehensive enough to include all age groups, sex, creed, community problems and resources; something must stand out to avoid scattered efforts, an a decision must be made as to which is the most urgent that needs to be prioritized

6. has defined plan for work
- good organization and careful planning for action to include:
a) people to be reached
b) goals, dates, and places
c) teaching procedures/methods to be used
d) duties, training, and recognition of volunteer leaders
e) part to be played by extension personnel and other agencies
f) plans for measuring results

7. a continuous process

The Planning Process

1. Analysis of Situation
- taking into account available resources (both material and human) in the area through any or a variety of methods such as observation, survey, interviews, census, transect maps, walk-throughs, etc.

2. Setting of Program Goals and Objectives
- objectives, mainly derived from problems identified and resources available, have to be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time-bound)

3. Designing the Strategy
- may include the following:
a) selecting approaches for change (institutional, commodity, integrated, area-based)
b) determined altenative solution to problems
c) choosing appropriate extension and communication techniques
d) setting up the organizational structure and staff
e) preparing the budget
f) enlisting support and active participation of community members
g) establishing linkages with other institutions

4. Planning the Program of Activities
- scheduling the various project activities; outlining the activities

5. Evaluation
- Takes place all throughout the whole planning process although it appears to be last in the planning process


1. Definition of terms
a) Monitoring – process of continuous assessment .at regular intervals, of progress in the project; it is done to assess the implementation of the project to make sure the work is proceeding as scheduled; whether inputs are delivered on time, are used as intended, and have the planned effects
b) Evaluation – using the results of monitoring, it is the process of assessing the strengths, weaknesses, effects, and impacts of the project or activity; assessment of the overall effects of agricultural extension program or project; the degree of farmer adoption of the recommended practices, and their effectiveness in the field

2. Purpose of evaluation
For operational purposes
- Whether it has achieved the intended output and effects and to determine the critical factors involved in the project
- To provide justification for the continuation, modification, or supervision of the project
- To provide objective and analytical information for an accountability report

a. As an analytical tool to improve project design
- To improve and sharpen project objectives and design
- To verify project assumptions and make them more explicit
- To serve as a framework to review the entire process of means and ends to achieve the desired goals

b. For policy purposes
- To ascertain the validity of a given development strategy, approach, assumption, or hypothesis
- To explore and or gain more knowledge about the interrelationships of several actions or policy decisions that affect the efficiency and effectiveness of a group of projects, approaches or strategies on comparative basis

Improving Extension Effectiveness

The organization of an extension service and its management depends on the tasks the organization has to perform and environment in which it operates.

Major changes of the environment that extension organizations have to consider include the following:

1. Increasing demands for agricultural products – because of growing population and increasing incomes
2. Economic liberalization – opens new opportunities for farmers to sell their products on the world market but they are also vulnerable to international competition
3. Unsustainable farming practices – there are many farming practices that are not sustainable; development of more sustainable farming practices require collective decision-making whereas extension in the past was more individual
4. Farmers’ ability to decide on new farming system as well as on new production technologies – farmers must be able to choose among the many options available to him; transfer of technology is not the most important but increasing the ability of farmers to make their own choices
5. New information from many sources – farmers obtain new information not only from government extension services but also from a growing range of information sources
6. Strong forces towards a change in financing of extension organizations – through privatization and financial supports of government to NGOs

Conditions to Improving Extension Effectiveness:

1. Good communication
2. Information
3. Adaptation to changing environments
4. Motivation of Staff/Extension Agents
5. Flexibility
6. Identification of Management Problems
7. Leadership in Extension Organizations
8. Environment


Adhockery, Roomy. 1994. Strategic Extension Campaign: A Participatory-Oriented Method of Agricultural Extension. FARO of the UN, Rome

Batted, Theodora, et al. 2003. Agricultural Extension. Grandwater Publications, Makati City, Philippines

Cernea, Michael, (eds.) 1983. Agricultural Extension by Training and Visit: The Asian Experience. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank, Washington

Chambers, Robert.1983. Rural Development: Putting the Last First. Butler and Tanner, Ltd., London

Eitington, Julius.1989. The Winning Trainer (2nd, ed.) Gull Publishing House, Texas

Kwiatskowsky, Lynn. 1999. Struggling with Development: The Politics of Hunger.
Ateneo de Manila University Press, Quezon City

Ledesma, Antonio. ___Rural Development Strategies in the Philippines: Some Perspectives

Mosher, A.T. 1978. An Introduction to Agricultural Extension. Singapore University Press for the Agricultural Development Council

Ongkiko, Ila Viginia and Alexander Flor. 2003. Introduction to Development Communication. SEAMEO SEARCA and the UP Open University, College, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines

Swanson,Burton, (eds.) 1997. Improving Agricultural Extension: A reference Manual, FAO of the UN, Rome

Van den Ban, A.W. and H.S. Hawkins. 1996. Agricultural Extension (2nd ed. ) Blackwell Science Ltd., Great Britain

_______________.1999. Communication in Extension: A Teaching and Learning Guide.
FAO of the UN, Rome

Notes from UPLB and CMU


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